Moment Arms

Typical moment arms (d) of knee and ankle muscle-tendon systems At the knee: Hamstring Muscle Group

Semitendinosus 40 mm < d < 55 mm Semimembraneous 20 mm < d < 40 mm Biceps femoris d = 20 mm

Calf Muscles

Gastrocnemius lateralis 12 mm < d < 20 mm Gastrocnemius medialis 12 mm < d < 20 mm

Quads

Rectus femoris 20 mm < d < 40 mm At the ankle:

Moment arms depend on the angles between the articulating bones, as discussed in Chapter 5. Consult Spoor et al. (1990) and Spoor and van Leeuwen (1992) for more detailed depiction of moment arms as a function of the flexion angle of the knee and the ankle.

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