Segment Properties Tables A22 and A23

Table A.2.2. Body segment parameters (Dempster 1955)

Segment

P (%)

m (%)

Ii (kg-m2)

I3 (kg-m2)

Head

0.5358

0.0730

0.0248

Upper arm

0.4360

0.0270

0.0213

Forearm

0.4300

0.0160

0.076

Hand

0.5060

0.0066

0.0005

Trunk

0.4383

0.5080

1.3080

0.3119

Thigh

0.4330

0.0988

0.1502

Lower leg

0.4330

0.0465

0.0505

Foot

0.4290

0.0145

0.0038

p, the distance from the center of gravity of the segment to the proximal endpoint expressed as a fraction of the segment length.

m, segment weight as a percentage of whole body weight.

Ii and I3, mass moments of inertia with respect to the center of mass of a body segment about the transverse and longitudional axis, respectively, for a subject with mass of 74.2 kg and standing height of 1.755 m. For more detailed information on segment properties, see de Leva (1996).

Table A.2.3. Relative weight and length of body segments for adult men and women

Men Women

Body segment

Weight

Length

Weight

Length

Whole body

100

100

100

100

Trunk

48.3

30.0

50.8

30.0

Head and neck

7.1

13.8

9.4

Thigh

10.5

23.2

8.3

24.7

Shank

4.5

24.7

5.5

25.6

Foot

1.5

4.2a

1.2

Upper arm

3.3

17.2

2.7

19.3

Forearm

1.9

15.7

1.6

16.6

Hand

0.6

10.4

0.5

10.4

Weight and length measurements reported are percentages of body weight and body length, respectively.

aThe number is associated with height of the foot not its length.

The data were gathered from de Leva (1996) and the skeletal anthropometric measurements by Santschi et al. (1963).

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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