Cell membrane

, Airways

Mucus-clogged bronchi and bronchioles. Respiratory infections. (Common)


Blocked small bile ducts impair digestion. (Rare)


Blocked ducts prevent release of digestive enzymes, impairing fat digestion. Diabetes is possible. (Common)


Hard stools may block intestines. (Rare)

Reproductive tract

Absence of vas deferens. (Common)


Salty sweat. (Common)

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein


From gene to protein to person. (a) The gene encoding the CFTR protein, and causing cystic fibrosis when mutant, is on the seventh largest chromosome. CFTR protein folds into a channel that regulates the flow of chloride ions into and out of cells lining the respiratory tract, pancreas, intestines, and elsewhere. (b) In cystic fibrosis, the CFTR protein is abnormal, usually missing an amino acid. Its shape is altered, which entraps the chloride ions inside cells. Water entering these cells leaves behind very thick mucus and other secretions in the places highlighted in the illustration. The sticky secretions cause the symptoms of the illness.

Source: Data from M.C. lannuzi and F.S. Collins, "Reverse Genetics and Cystic Fibrosis" in American Journal of Respiratory Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2:309-316, 1990.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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