W

elcome to the ninth edition of Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology. Our goal in revising this text is to provide you with the best learning resource possible. Whether you are planning for a career in health care, athletics, general science, or planning an expedition to Mt. Everest, this text is your partner into the fascinating world of the human body.

Just as a climber selects gear for the climb and learns the ropes, you plan a study route and select learning tools to master the concepts presented in anatomy and physiology. We outfitted each chapter with learning aids to assist you in the exploration and discovery of the human body systems.

View From the Top, p. xv, is your first stop in the A&P exploration. Examine this guide to your text, which maps the tools of the climb. Real-life stories, Clinical Applications, key terms with pronunciations, questions at the end of key sections, InnerConnections, reconnection for review, Life-Span Changes, end-of-chapter summaries, review exercises, and links to technology are some of the tools available to make your journey successful.

Visual Guide to Online Learning Resources, p. xx, provides a solid foothold to a wealth of activities and resources supporting chapter content.

• Visit the Online Learning Center at www.mhhe.com/shier. It offers quizzes, crossword puzzles, labeling exercises, flashcards, and case studies for all chapters.

• Link to the Essential Study Partner. This valuable tool reinforces textbook content and gives you additional activities for mastery of core concepts.

• Navigate through online dissections with adam Online Anatomy.

• Search BioCourse.com for helpful animations, video presentations, and laboratory exercises.

Supplements, p. xxiv, are part of the support team giving you an easy climb to the top of the class.

• Partner with the Student Study Guide to direct your study more efficiently.

• Explore the laboratory manual exercises that illustrate and review A&P facts and principles.

• Connect to atlases, study cards, coloring guides, and CD-ROMS.

Think of yourself as a climber. You are at the base of the mountain, gazing skyward across the rocky terrain. You are ready. Your body is a precision instrument of interconnected systems that provides tools for the climb.

We have provided you with the tools for your exploration and discovery of human anatomy and physiology.

Learning is an adventure of the greatest magnitude, and we are proud to be a part of your team.

Sincerely,

David Shier, Jackie Butler, Ricki Lewis

Ricki Lewis, David Shier, Jackie Butler

Shier-Butler-Lewis: Human Anatomy and Physiology, Ninth Edition

Front Matter

View from the Top

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2001

2. Name the major parts of a skeletal muscle fiber and describe the function of each part.

erg-, work: ^nagi«—mle with a climbing guide to chapter concepts. Chapter Objectives provide a glimpse ahead to important sections of the narrative.

Connect to Real-Life Stories that introduce each topic. These vignettes, taken from headlines and scientific journal reports, extend your view into chapter content.

Anchor Your Understanding of anatomy and physiology with key terms and their phonetic pronunciations. The bold face terms found throughout the narrative are key to building your science vocabulary.

Keep Your Eyes Peeled for boxed information that connects chapter ideas to clinical situations, discusses changes in organ structure and function, and introduces new medical technology or experiments.

2. Name the major parts of a skeletal muscle fiber and describe the function of each part.

3. Explain the major events that occur during muscle fiber

4 Explain how energy is supplied to the muscle fiber contraction mechanism, how oxygen debt develops, and how a muscle may become fatigued.

Distinguish between fast and slow muscle fibers. Distinguish between a twitch and a sustained contraction. Describe how exercise affects skeletal muscles. Explain how various types of muscular contractions produce body movements and help maintain posture.

Distinguish between the structures and functions of a multiunit smooth muscle and a visceral smooth muscle.

isms of skeletal, smooth, and

fibers. of a cardiac muscle fibers.

muscle contraction.

muscle contraction.

"rco-;;;bS:'fmi^0aplm;, contraction. -tonic, stretched: isotonic contraction—contraction :h th. tension i=h

Build Your A&P

Vocabulary

Understanding words includes root words, stems, prefixes, and suffixes revealing word meanings and origins. Knowing the roots from these lists help you remember scientific word meanings and understand new terms.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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