Thyroid Gland page 519

The thyroid gland is located in the neck and consists of two lateral lobes.

1. Structure of the gland a. The thyroid gland consists of many hollow secretory parts called follicles.

b. The follicles are fluid filled and store the hormones the follicle cells secrete.

c. Extrafollicular cells secrete calcitonin.

2. Thyroid hormones a. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine

(1) These hormones increase the rate of metabolism, enhance protein synthesis, and stimulate lipid breakdown.

(2) These hormones are needed for normal growth and development and for maturation of the nervous system.

b. Calcitonin

(1) Calcitonin lowers blood calcium and phosphate ion concentrations.

(2) This hormone prevents prolonged elevation of calcium after a meal.

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