1. Distinguish between chemistry and biochemistry.
2. Define matter.
3. Explain the relationship between elements and atoms.
4. Define compound.
5. List the four most abundant elements in the human body.
6. Describe the major parts of an atom.
7. Distinguish between protons and neutrons.
8. Explain why a complete atom is electrically neutral.
9. Distinguish between atomic number and atomic weight.
10. Define isotope.
11. Define atomic radiation.
12. Describe how electrons are arranged within atoms.
13. Explain why some atoms are chemically inert.
14. Distinguish between an ionic bond and a covalent bond.
15. Distinguish between a single covalent bond and a double covalent bond.
16. Explain the relationship between molecules and compounds.
17. Distinguish between a molecular formula and a structural formula.
18. Describe three major types of chemical reactions.
19. Define reversible reaction.
20. Define catalyst.
21. Define acid, base, salt, and electrolyte.
22. Explain what pH measures.
23. Distinguish between organic and inorganic substances.
24. Describe the roles played by water and by oxygen in the human body.
25. List several ions that cells require, and describe their general functions.
26. Define electrolyte balance.
27. Describe the general characteristics of carbohydrates.
28. Distinguish between simple and complex carbohydrates.
29. Describe the general characteristics of lipids.
30. Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats.
31. Describe the general characteristics of proteins.
32. Describe the function of an enzyme.
33. Explain how protein molecules may become denatured.
34. Describe the general characteristics of nucleic acids.
35. Explain the general functions of nucleic acids.
understanding ^Vo rds cyt-, cell: cytoplasm—fluid between the cell membrane and nuclear envelope. endo-, within: endoplasmic reticulum—complex of membranous structures in the cytoplasm. hyper-, above: hypertonic—
solution that has a greater osmotic pressure than the cytosol. hypo-, below: hypotonic—
solution that has a lesser osmotic pressure than the cytosol. inter-, between: interphase— stage between mitotic divisions of a cell. iso-, equal: isotonic—solution that has an osmotic pressure equal to that of the cytosol. lys-, to break up: 7ysosome— organelle containing enzymes that break down molecules of protein, carbohydrate, or nucleic acid.
mit-, thread: mitosis—stage of cell division when chromosomes condense and become visible. phag-, to eat: phagocytosis— process by which a cell takes in solid particles. pino-, to drink: pinocytosis— process by which a cell takes in tiny droplets of liquid.
pro-, before: prophase—first stage of mitosis. som, body: ribosome—tiny, spherical organelle composed of protein and RNA.
vesic-, bladder: vesicle—small, saclike organelle that contains various substances to be transported or secreted.
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to
Explain how cells differ from one another.
Describe the general characteristics of a composite cell.
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