1. Describe the general structure, function, and location of the heart.
2. Describe the pericardium.
3. Compare the layers of the cardiac wall.
4. Identify and describe the locations of the chambers and the valves of the heart.
5. Describe the skeleton of the heart, and explain its function.
6. Trace the path of the blood through the heart.
7. Trace the path of the blood through the coronary circulation.
8. Describe a cardiac cycle.
9. Describe the pressure changes that occur in the atria and ventricles during a cardiac cycle.
10. Explain the origin of heart sounds.
11. Describe the arrangement of the cardiac muscle fibers.
12. Distinguish between the roles of the S-A node and the A-V node.
13. Explain how the cardiac conduction system controls the cardiac cycle.
14. Describe and explain the normal ECG pattern.
15. Discuss how the nervous system regulates the cardiac cycle.
16. Describe two factors other than the nervous system that affect the cardiac cycle.
17. Distinguish between an artery and an arteriole.
18. Explain control of vasoconstriction and vasodilation.
19. Describe the structure and function of a capillary.
20. Describe the function of the blood-brain barrier.
21. Explain control of blood flow through a capillary.
22. Explain how diffusion functions in the exchange of substances between blood plasma and tissue fluid.
23. Explain why water and dissolved substances leave the arteriolar end of a capillary and enter the venular end.
24. Describe the effect of histamine on a capillary.
25. Distinguish between a venule and a vein.
26. Explain how veins function as blood reservoirs.
27. Distinguish between systolic and diastolic blood pressures.
28. Name several factors that influence the blood pressure, and explain how each produces its effect.
29. Describe the control of blood pressure.
30. List the major factors that promote the flow of venous blood.
31. Define central venous pressure.
32. Distinguish between the pulmonary and systemic circuits of the cardiovascular system.
33. Trace the path of blood through the pulmonary circuit.
34. Explain why the alveoli normally do not fill with fluid.
35. Describe the aorta, and name its principal branches.
36. Describe the relationship between the major venous pathways and the major arterial pathways.
37. List and describe the changes occurring in the cardiovascular system as a result of aging.
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After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to
1. Describe the general functions of the lymphatic system.
2. Identify the locations of the major lymphatic pathways.
3. Describe how tissue fluid and lymph form and explain the function of lymph.
4. Explain how lymphatic circulation is maintained and describe the consequence of lymphatic obstruction.
5. Describe a lymph node and its major functions.
6. Describe the location of the major chains of lymph nodes.
7. Discuss the functions of the thymus and spleen.
8. Distinguish between specific and nonspecific defenses and provide examples of each.
9. Explain how two major types of lymphocytes are formed, activated, and how they function in immune mechanisms.
10. Name the major types of immunoglobulins and discuss their origins and actions.
11. Distinguish between primary and secondary immune responses.
12. Distinguish between active and passive immunity.
allergen—substance that stimulates an allergic response. humor-, moisture, fluid: humoral immunity—immunity resulting from antibodies in body fluids. immun-, free, exempt:
immunity—resistance to (freedom from) a specific disease. inflamm-, to set on fire:
inflammation—localized redness, heat, swelling, and pain in the tissues. nod-, knot: nodule—small mass of lymphocytes within connective tissue. path-, disease, sickness:
rgan transplants succeed only when the recipient's im-
Omune system accepts the healing, foreign tissue. Sometimes people in dire need of organ transplants get them from unexpected sources. Here are two transplant tales.
Bobbie diSabatino, fifty-six years old, had been at the University of Maryland Medical Center for four months, awaiting a heart after suffering a heart attack. She awoke Valentine's Day, 1998, with a new heart—thanks to a friendship that her daughter had struck up with another hospital visitor, Bob Bradshaw. Bob's wife, thirty-eight-year-old Cheryl, had a cluster of abnormal blood vessels in her brain that caused her death, following a one-month hospital stay. During that time, Bob and Cheryl made the difficult decision to request that Cheryl's heart go to Bobbie. The organ was a perfect match, and the transplant saved the older woman's life.
Peter F. was sixteen years old in 1996 when an automobile accident left him paralyzed from the waist down. Much of his small intestine had to be removed. As a result, Peter had to be fed intravenously, but he developed liver failure and recurrent infections at the site where the catheter was inserted. A vicious cycle set in. He lost so much weight because of his deficient small intestine that doctors could no longer find veins to deliver nutrients. The next step was to transplant a small intestine from a cadaver, but no match was found. His doctors, at the University of Minnesota, then looked for a living donor—Peter's father, who was a close enough match immunologically. The father donated 200 centimeters of his small intestine to his son, and both are now healthy. Peter eats normally again.
The lymphatic system is closely associated with the cardiovascular system because it includes a network of vessels that assist in circulating body fluids. Lymphatic vessels transport excess fluid away from interstitial spaces in most tissues and return it to the bloodstream (fig. 16.1). Special lymphatic capillaries (lacteals) located in the lining of the small intestine absorb digested fats, then transport the fats to venous circulation. The organs of the lymphatic system also help defend the body against infection by disease-causing agents.
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