Review Exercises

1. List the major components of blood.

2. Define hematocrit, and explain how it is determined.

3. Describe a red blood cell.

4. Distinguish between oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin.

5. Explain what is meant by a red blood cell count.

6. Describe the life cycle of a red blood cell.

7. Distinguish between biliverdin and bilirubin.

8. Define erythropoietin, and explain its function.

9. Explain how vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies affect red blood cell production.

10. List two sources of iron that can be used for the synthesis of hemoglobin.

11. Distinguish between granulocytes and agranulocytes.

12. Name five types of leukocytes, and list the major functions of each type.

13. Explain the significance of white blood cell counts as aids to diagnosing diseases.

14. Describe a blood platelet, and explain its functions.

15. Name three types of plasma proteins, and list the major functions of each type.

16. Define lipoprotein.

17. Define apoprotein.

18. Distinguish between low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein.

19. Name the sources of VLDL, LDL, HDL, and chylomicrons.

20. Describe how lipoproteins are removed from plasma.

21. Explain how cholesterol is eliminated from plasma and from the body.

22. Define nonprotein nitrogenous substances, and name those commonly present in plasma.

23. Name several plasma electrolytes.

24. Define hemostasis.

25. Explain how blood vessel spasms are stimulated following an injury.

26. Explain how a platelet plug forms.

27. List the major steps leading to the formation of a blood clot.

28. Indicate the trigger and outline the steps for extrinsic clotting and for intrinsic clotting.

29. Distinguish between fibrinogen and fibrin.

30. Describe a positive feedback system that operates during blood clotting.

31. Define serum.

32. Distinguish between a thrombus and an embolus.

33. Explain how a blood clot may be removed naturally from a blood vessel.

34. Describe how blood coagulation may be prevented.

35. Name a vitamin required for blood clotting.

36. Distinguish between antigen and antibody.

37. Explain the basis of ABO blood types.

38. Explain why a person with blood type AB is sometimes called a universal recipient.

39. Explain why a person with blood type O is sometimes called a universal donor.

40. Distinguish between Rh-positive and Rh-negative blood.

41. Describe how a person may become sensitized to Rh-positive blood.

42. Describe erythroblastosis fetalis, and explain how this condition may develop.

m understanding ^Vo rds angio-, vessel: angiotensin— substance that constricts blood vessels. ather-, porridge:

atherosclerosis—deposits of plaque in arteries. brady-, slow: bradycardia—

abnormally slow heartbeat. diastol-, dilation: diastolic pressure—blood pressure when the ventricle of the heart is relaxed. edem-, swelling: edema—

condition in which fluids accumulate in the tissues and cause them to swell. -gram, letter, drawing:

electrocardiogram— recording of electrical changes in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle. lun-, moon: semilunar valve—

valve with crescent-shaped flaps.

my-, muscle: myocardium— muscle tissue within the wall of the heart. papill-, nipple: papillary muscle—small mound of muscle within a ventricle of the heart. phleb-, vein: phlebitis—

inflammation of a vein. scler-, hard: arteriosclerosis— loss of elasticity and hardening of a blood vessel wall.

syn-, together: syncytium—mass of merging cells that act together. systol-, contraction: systolic pressure—blood pressure resulting from a ventricular contraction. tachy-, rapid: tachycardia—

abnormally fast heartbeat.

chapter objectivi

After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to

1. Name the organs of the cardiovascular system and discuss their functions.

2. Identify and locate the major parts of the heart and discuss the function of each part.

3. Trace the pathway of the blood through the heart and the vessels of the coronary circulation.

4. Discuss the cardiac cycle and explain how it is controlled.

5. Identify the parts of a normal ECG pattern and discuss the significance of this pattern.

6. Compare the structures and functions of the major types of blood vessels.

7. Describe the mechanisms that aid in returning venous blood to the heart.

8. Explain how blood pressure is produced and controlled.

9. Compare the pulmonary and systemic circuits of the cardiovascular system.

10. Identify and locate the major arteries and veins of the pulmonary and systemic circuits.

11. Describe life-span changes in the cardiovascular system.

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