Review Exercises

1. Discuss the relationship of DNA, genes, chromosomes, and the genome.

2. Discuss the origin of the 46 chromosomes in a human zygote.

3. Define homologous chromosomes.

4. Distinguish between

• homozygote and heterozygote

• autosome and sex chromosome

• mutant and wild-type

• phenotype and genotype

• incomplete dominance and codominance

• haploid and diploid

• penetrance and expressivity

• germline and nongermline gene therapy

5. Explain how a gene can have many alleles.

6. Describe how cystic fibrosis is pleiotropic.

7. Explain why the frequency distributions of different complex traits give very similar bell curves.

8. Describe how the environment can influence gene expression.

9. Explain how genes and chromosomes determine gender.

10. Explain why Y-linked genes are passed only from fathers to sons.

11. Explain why the inheritance pattern of X-linked traits differs in males and females.

12. Explain why a male cannot inherit an X-linked trait from his father.

13. Explain why X-linked dominant traits are not seen in males.

14. Discuss how a sex-limited trait and a sex-influenced trait differ from an X-linked trait.

15. Explain how an individual with an extra set of chromosomes arises.

16. Explain how nondisjunction leads to aneuploidy.

17. Distinguish among four types of prenatal diagnostic tests.

18. Describe why heritable gene therapy is impractical in humans.

19. Explain how nonheritable gene therapy is being attempted in various human tissues.

Human Cadavers

I The following set of illustrations includes sagittal sections, transverse sections, and regional dissections of human cadavers. These photographs will help you visualize the spatial and proportional relationships between the major anatomic structures of actual specimens. The photographs can also serve as the basis for a review of the information you have gained from your study of the human organism.

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