Review Exercises

1. Explain how the lymphatic system is related to the cardiovascular system.

2. Trace the general pathway of lymph from the interstitial spaces to the bloodstream.

3. Identify and describe the locations of the major lymphatic trunks and collecting ducts.

4. Distinguish between tissue fluid and lymph.

5. Describe the primary functions of lymph.

6. Explain why physical exercise promotes lymphatic circulation.

7. Explain how a lymphatic obstruction leads to edema.

8. Describe the structure of a lymph node, and list its major functions.

9. Locate the major body regions occupied by lymph nodes.

10. Describe the structure and functions of the thymus.

11. Describe the structure and functions of the spleen.

12. Distinguish between specific and nonspecific body defenses against infection.

13. Explain species resistance.

14. Name two mechanical barriers to infection.

15. Describe how enzymatic actions function as defense mechanisms against pathogens.

16. Distinguish among the chemical barriers (interferons, defensins, and collectins), and give examples of their different actions.

17. List possible causes of fever, and explain the benefits of fever.

18. List the major effects of inflammation, and explain why each occurs.

19. Identify the major phagocytic cells in the blood and other tissues.

20. Distinguish between an antigen and a hapten.

21. Review the origin of T cells and B cells.

22. Describe how the immune response begins, including T cell activation.

23. Explain cellular immunity.

24. Define cytokine.

25. List three types of T cells and describe the function of each in the immune response.

26. Define clone of lymphocytes.

27. Explain humoral immunity.

28. Explain how a B cell is activated.

29. Explain the function of plasma cells.

30. Describe an immunoglobulin molecule.

31. Distinguish between the variable region and the constant region of an immunoglobulin molecule.

32. List the major types of immunoglobulins, and describe their main functions.

33. Describe three ways in which direct attachment of antibodies to antigens helps in the removal of antigens.

34. Explain the functions of complement.

35. Distinguish between a primary and a secondary immune response.

36. Distinguish between active and passive immunity.

37. Define vaccine.

38. Explain how a vaccine produces its effect.

39. Describe how a fetus may obtain antibodies from the maternal blood.

40. Explain the relationship between an allergic reaction and an immune response.

41. Distinguish between an antigen and an allergen.

42. Describe how an immediate-reaction allergic response may occur.

43. List the major events leading to a delayed-reaction allergic response.

44. Explain the relationship between tissue rejection and an immune response.

45. Describe two methods used to reduce the severity of a tissue rejection reaction.

46. How do immunosuppressant drugs increase the likelihood of success of a transplant, yet place a patient at a higher risk of contracting infections?

47. Explain the relationship between autoimmunity and an immune response.

48. Describe the causes for a decline in the strength of the immune response in the elderly.

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