Reproduction

Reproduction (recpro-dukcshun) is the process of producing offspring (progeny). Cells reproduce when they divide and give rise to new cells. The reproductive (reSpro-dukctiv) system (fig. 1.16) of an organism, however, produces whole new organisms like itself (see chapter 22).

The male reproductive system includes the scrotum, testes, epididymides, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, and penis. These structures produce and maintain the male sex cells, or sperm cells (spermatozoa). The male reproductive system also transfers these cells from their site of origin into the female reproductive tract.

The female reproductive system consists of the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva. These organs produce and maintain the female sex cells (egg cells or ova), receive the male sex cells (sperm cells), and transport the female sex cells within the female reproductive system. The female reproductive system also supports development of embryos and functions in the birth process.

Table 1.4 summarizes the organ systems, the major organs that comprise them, and their major functions in the order you will read about them in this book. Figure 1.17 illustrates the organ systems in humans. Finally, special looks at various organs and organ systems as a y

Male reproductive system Female reproductive system

Figure 1.16

The reproductive systems manufacture and transport sex cells.

Male reproductive system Female reproductive system

Figure 1.16

The reproductive systems manufacture and transport sex cells.

Organ System

Major Organs

Major Functions

Integumentary

Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands

Protect tissues, regulate body temperature, support sensory receptors

Skeletal

Bones, ligaments, cartilages

Provide framework, protect soft tissues, provide attachments for muscles, produce blood cells, store inorganic salts

Muscular

Muscles

Cause movements, maintain posture, produce body heat

Nervous

Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs

Detect changes, receive and interpret sensory information, stimulate muscles and glands

Endocrine

Glands that secrete hormones (pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, and thymus gland)

Control metabolic activities of body structures

Cardiovascular

Heart, arteries, capillaries, veins

Move blood through blood vessels and transport substances throughout body

Lymphatic

Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen

Return tissue fluid to the blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules, defend the body against infection

Digestive

Mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines

Receive, break down, and absorb food; eliminate unabsorbed material

Respiratory

Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

Intake and output of air, exchange of gases between air and blood

Urinary

Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

Remove wastes from blood, maintain water and electrolyte balance, store and transport urine

Reproductive

Male: scrotum, testes, epididymides, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, penis

Produce and maintain sperm cells, transfer sperm cells into female reproductive tract

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