Regulation of Bile Release

Normally, bile does not enter the duodenum until chole-cystokinin stimulates the gallbladder to contract. The intestinal mucosa releases this hormone in response to proteins and fats in the small intestine. (Recall from the discussion earlier in this chapter, cholecystokinins action to stimulate pancreatic enzyme secretion.) The hepatopan-creatic sphincter usually remains contracted until a peristaltic wave in the duodenal wall approaches it. Then, just before the wave reaches it, the sphincter relaxes and bile squirts into the duodenum (fig. 17.32). Table 17.8 summarizes the hormones that help control digestion.

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