PCR Has Been Used to Amplify:

Genetic material from HIV in a human blood sample when infection has been so recent that antibodies are not yet detectable. A bit of DNA in a preserved quagga (a relative of the zebra) and a marsupial wolf, which are recently extinct animals. DNA in sperm cells found in the body of a rape victim so that specific sequences could be compared to those of a crime suspect. Genes from microorganisms that cannot be grown or maintained in culture for study.

Mitochondrial DNA from various modern human populations. Comparisons of mitochondrial DNA sequences indicate that Homo sapiens originated in Africa, supporting fossil evidence. DNA from the brain of a 7,000-year-old human mummy, which indicated that native Americans were not the only people to dwell in North America long ago.

DNA sequences unique to moose in hamburger meat, proving that illegal moose poaching had occurred.

DNA sequences in maggots in a decomposing human corpse, enabling forensic scientists to determine the time of death.

DNA in deteriorated road kills and carcasses washed ashore, to identify locally threatened species.

DNA in products illegally made from endangered species, such as powdered rhinoceros horn, sold as an aphrodisiac.

DNA sequences in animals that are unique to the bacteria that cause Lyme disease, providing clues to how the disease is transmitted.

DNA from genetically altered microbes that are released in field tests, to follow their dispersion.

DNA from a cell of an eight-celled human preembryo, to diagnose cystic fibrosis.

Y chromosome-specific DNA from a human egg fertilized in the laboratory to determine the sex.

A papilloma virus DNA sequence present in, and possibly causing, an eye cancer.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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