P

Pacemaker, 595, 600 artificial, 601 secondary, 601 Pacemaker-cardioverter-

defibrillator, 601 Pacinian corpuscles, 175, 457, 457,

458, 462t Packed cell volume, 548 Packed red cells, 574-75 Paganini, NiccolĂ´, 273 Pain, 458-61 acute, 460 bone, 198 cancer, 461 chronic, 460-61 forearm, 235

pain nerve pathways, 460 perception of, 385 referred, 458-60, 459 regulation of pain impulse,

460-61 visceral, 458-60, 459 Pain receptors, 405, 456, 458, 462t Palate, 691-93, 695t Palatine bone, 211t, 215, 216, 219,

220, 221, 224t, 259, 261 Palatine foramen, greater, 216,

224t, 259, 261 Palatine process, 216, 220, 222,

259, 261 Palatine suture, median, 216,

259, 261 Palatine tonsils, 691-92, 691,

692, 781 Palliative care, 970 Palmaris longus muscle, 330, 331,

332, 333, 334t, 360 Palmar region, 24, 25 Palm oil, 52 Palpitation, 639 Pancreas, 8, 16, 36, 505, 507t,

530-32, 532, 688, 689, 710, 717, 1012, 1013 digestive functions of,

707-9, 708 hormones of, 530-32, 533, 533t secretions of, 707-8

regulation of, 708-9, 709 structure of, 530, 532, 707

Pancreas transplant, 673 Pancreatic acinar cells, 707 Pancreatic amylase, 707, 720t Pancreatic duct, 707, 708, 716 Pancreatic juice, 707-8, 709 Pancreatic lipase, 707, 720t, 748 Pancreatitis, 39, 707 Pannus, 291

Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5),

755, 758t Papillae dermal, 170, 181 duodenal, 708 renal, 821, 823, 825 of tongue, 465, 466, 691, 692 Papillary muscles, 585, 586, 587 Papillotomy, endoscopic, 715 Pap smear, 906 Paracrine secretion, 504 Paralysis, 302, 349, 380, 409, 440, 801 flaccid, 411 sleep, 424t spastic, 411 Parasomnia, 424t Parasympathetic division, 438,

440, 444, 445 Parasympathetic innervation of alimentary canal, 688-89 of heart, 597, 599 of pancreas, 708 of salivary glands, 695 of small intestine, 723 of stomach, 703, 704, 706 Parathyroidectomy, 539 Parathyroid gland, 505, 507t, 523-24, 524, 539 disorders of, 526t hyperplasia of, 504 Parathyroid hormone, 209, 506,

507t, 509, 523-24, 524, 525, 526, 752, 865-66, 865, 917, 918t Paraventricular nucleus, 739 Paravertebral ganglia, 436, 439,

441, 442, 459 Paresis, 349

Parietal bone, 197, 211, 211t, 213, 214, 215, 216t, 219, 221, 225, 255, 256, 265, 266, 272, 357 Parietal cells, 700, 702, 703 Parietal lobe, 413, 414, 415, 416,

416, 417t Parietal pericardium, 12, 581,

583, 584 Parietal peritoneum, 12, 16, 710,

822, 844, 846 Parietal pleura, 12, 15, 791, 792, 794-95

Parkinson disease, 59, 163, 333,

372, 384t, 420, 420, 447, 675 Parotid duct, 695, 697 Parotid gland, 688, 694-95, 697,

698t, 1014 Pars intermedia, 514 Partially complete protein, 744 Partial pressure, 802, 806 Partial thromboplastin time,

565, 1032 Parturition. See Childbirth Passive aging, 970 Passive immunity artificially acquired, 671, 672t naturally acquired, 672, 672t

Passive (physical) process, movements into and out of cells, 82, 93t Patella, 196, 197, 211t, 212, 213, 243, 244, 247t, 275, 286, 288, 339, 344, 360, 402, 405, 1019, 1020

dislocation of, 244 Patellar ligament, 244, 286, 288, 339, 343, 344, 360, 402, 405, 1020 Patellar region, 24, 25 Patellar tendon, 343 Patent ductus arteriosus, 621, 965 Pathogen, 659 Pathologic fracture, 206 Pathology, 25

Patient-controlled analgesia, 461 Pattern baldness, 178, 990 PCP, 387 Pectin, 739

Pectineus muscle, 36, 337-38,

339, 342t Pectoral girdle, 211, 211t, 233-34, 234, 235, 240t muscles that move, 324-25, 325, 326, 326t, 327 Pectoralis major muscle, 31, 32, 318, 319, 326, 328, 328t, 329, 359, 435, 919, 922, 1011,1015 Pectoralis minor muscle, 32,

324-25, 326, 326t, 435, 795, 796, 922 Pectoral nerve, 326t, 328t lateral, 435 medial, 435 Pectoral region, 24, 25 Pedal region, 24, 25 Pediatrics, 25 Pedicels, 825, 827, 832 Pedicle, 227, 228, 229 Pediculosis, 189 Pedigree, 983, 984 Pellagra, 755, 758t Pelvic brim, 240, 242 Pelvic cavity, 12, 13, 229, 243t sagittal section of, 1009 transverse section of, 1013 Pelvic cavity lymph nodes,

656, 657 Pelvic curvature, 225-26, 226 Pelvic diaphragm, 336 Pelvic girdle, 211t, 212, 239-42,

241, 242, 247t Pelvic inflammatory disease, 930 Pelvic outlet, muscles of, 336,

337, 338t Pelvic region, 24, 25 Pelvis, 212, 240, 243t arteries to, 626-32, 629 female, 242, 242, 337 male, 242, 337, 1013 veins from, 635-37, 636 Penetrance, 986 complete, 986 incomplete, 986 Penetrating keratoplasty, 484 Penicillamine, 468, 845 Penicillin, 112, 672 Penile plethysmography, 881 Penile urethra, 846-47, 847 Penis, 33, 34, 337, 847, 881, 892-93, 893, 896t, 958 body of, 882, 893

bulb of, 882, 893 crus of, 882 root of, 882, 893 Pepsin, 660, 700, 703, 703t, 720t Pepsinogen, 700, 703, 703t Peptic ulcer, 701 Peptidase, 719, 720t, 721 Peptide(s), as neurotransmitters, 381 Peptide bond, 54, 54, 110, 111,

127, 129, 130t Peptide hormones, 505, 506,

507t, 508 Perception, 455t Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, 642 Perfluorocarbons, 575 Perforating canals, 198, 199 Perforin, 663

Pericardial artery, 622, 625t Pericardial cavity, 12, 13, 15, 36,

582, 583, 584, 792, 1011 Pericardial membranes, 12 Pericardial sac, 33 Pericardiectomy, 639 Pericarditis, 582

Pericardium, 581-82, 1012,1024 fibrous, 12, 15, 581, 583, 584 parietal, 12, 581, 583, 584 visceral, 12, 15, 581, 583 Perichondrium, 156 Perilymph, 471, 472, 473 Perimetrium, 904, 905, 905 Perimysium, 298, 299, 300 Perinatology, 972 Perineal artery, 629 Perineal region, 24, 25 Perineum, 906-7, 906, 919, 958 Perineurium, 426, 428, 429 Periodic Table, 1027 Periodontal disease, 728, 770 Periodontal ligament, 272, 273,

693-94, 694 Periosteum, 196, 197, 199,

200-203, 201, 201t, 207, 274,298 Peripheral, definition of, 22 Peripheral blood smear, 547 Peripheral chemoreceptors,

803, 803 Peripheral nerve severed, 373

structure of, 426, 428, 429 Peripheral nervous system, 363, 364, 396, 426-46, 426t. See also Autonomic nervous system; Somatic nervous system cranial nerves, 428-32, 429,

430, 431, 432, 433t spinal nerves. See Spinal nerves Peripheral process, 455 Peripheral proteins, 69-70 Peripheral resistance, 606, 613, 616-17 blood pressure and, 611, 611, 615 Peristalsis, 315, 688, 689, 698, 705-6, 706, 723, 726, 729-30,843-44 Peristaltic rush, 723 Peritoneal cavity, 12, 16,

710, 717 Peritoneal membrane, 12, 717

Peritoneum, 335

844, 846 visceral, 12, 16, 688, 710 Peritonitis, 723

Peritubular capillaries, 826, 827, 830, 831, 835-36, 835, 838 Permanent wave, 56 Pernicious anemia, 553, 555t, 675t,

756, 758t, 764t Peroneal artery, 630, 630, 631 Peroneal nerve common, 436, 439 deep, 347, 347t superficial, 347, 347t Peroneal retinacula, 345, 346, 348 Peroneal vein, 608, 636, 638 Peroneus brevis muscle, 344,

345, 1020 Peroneus longus muscle, 319, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 347t, 348, 360, 1019, 1020 Peroneus tertius muscle, 343, 345,

347, 347t Peroxidase, 78 Peroxisomes, 78, 85t abnormal, 80-81 Perpendicular plate, of ethmoid bone, 217, 218, 222, 255, 263

Persistent vegetative state,

395, 423 Personality, 395, 395 Perspiration, 8 Pesco-vegetarian, 739t Peyer's patches, 656 p21 gene, 21

Phagocytes, 89, 660t, 661 Phagocytosis, 89-91, 90, 93t, 151, 151, 667 as defense against infection, 661, 661t Phalanges of fingers, 211t, 212, 212, 236,

238, 239, 240t, 277, 360 of toes, 211t, 212, 213, 243, 245, 246, 247t, 361 Pharmacology, 25 Pharyngeal tonsils, 692, 692, 781 Pharyngitis, 730 Pharynx, 469, 688, 695-98, 780, 781, 792t, 1011 constrictor muscles of, 696, 698 Phencyclidine, 926t Phenobarbital, 926t Phenotype, 983

gender effects on, 990 Phenylalanine, 135, 136 p-Phenylenediamine, 134t Phenylethanolamine N-

methyltransferase, 525 Phenylketonuria, 135, 136, 136,

945t, 992 Phenylpyruvic acid, 1033 Pheochromocytoma, 504, 539 Phlebitis, 608, 639 Phlebotomy, 639 Phosphate, 832t, 858, 859t, 864-66, 865 blood, 521-23 in cells, 49, 50t Phosphate buffer system,

868-69, 870t Phosphaturic factor, 524 Phosphodiesterase, 493, 509, 509

Phospholipids, 50-51, 53, 53t, 69,

69, 72, 741-42 Phosphoproteins, 866, 868 Phosphoric acid, 47t, 866, 868,

871, 871 Phosphorus, 757, 759, 761t absorption of, 752 in human body, 40t serum, 1031 Phosphorylation, 114 Photopigments, 455 Photoreceptors, 456, 487 Phrenic artery, 622, 624, 625t, 626 Phrenic nerve, 433, 437, 440,

794, 1023 Phrenic vein, 635 pH scale, 48, 48, 48t Phylloquinone, 752 Physical stress, 536 Physician-assisted suicide, 970 Physiological mechanisms, movements into and out of cells, 82, 93t Physiological steady state, 83-86 Physiologic dead space, 798 Physiology, 4, 4

Pigmented epithelium, 488 Pilocarpine, 445 Pimple, 180 Pineal cells, 533 Pineal gland, 419, 421, 505,

533-35 Pinkeye, 481

Pinocytosis, 89, 90, 91, 93t, 836 Pisiform, 239 Pitch, of voice, 783 Pitching, forearm pain and, 235 Pituicytes, 513, 518 Pituitary dwarfism, 204, 517, 997 Pituitary gigantism, 204 Pituitary gland, 421, 505, 513-19, 513 anterior lobe, 507t, 513-18, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 520t, 896-99, 897, 908 intermediate lobe, 514 posterior lobe, 419, 507t, 513-14, 513, 514, 518-19, 518, 520t Pivot joint, 276, 277, 278t Placenta, 916-19, 918t, 920, 946-47, 950, 952, 953, 960, 961 hormones of, 535 Placental estrogen, 917 Placental lactogen, 918, 920 Placental membrane, 947, 952 Plantar artery lateral, 630, 630 medial, 630, 630 Plantar flexion, 276, 279 Plantar reflex, 407 Plantar region, 24, 25 Plantar vein lateral, 636 medial, 636 Plaque, atherosclerotic, 608, 609 Plasma, blood, 158, 159, 547, 548,

558-63, 561, 858, 860 composition of, 832t electrolytes in, 561, 563 nonprotein nitrogenous substances in, 562-63

nutrients in, 561-62, 561 osmotic pressure of, 560 Plasma cells, 549, 665, 668,

671, 674 Plasma exchange, 306 Plasma proteins, 560-61, 561,

561t, 605-6, 611, 745, 833, 837, 863 Plasmin, 565 Plasminogen, 565 Plasminogen activator, 565 Platelet(s), 158, 159, 208, 547, 548,

549, 558, 560t, 561 Platelet count, 558, 568, 1031 Platelet-derived growth factor, 565 Platelet plug, 563, 563, 564t Platelet transfusion, 568, 575 Platysma muscle, 318, 320-21,

320, 321t Pleiotropy, 986 Pleura parietal, 12, 15, 791, 792,

Pleural cavity, 15, 36, 791, 792 Pleural membranes, 12, 794-95 Pleurisy, 813

Plexus, 433, 437. See also specific plexuses Plicae circulares, 718, 719 Pluripotent cells, 102, 142 Pneumoconiosis, 813 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 678, 808

873,971-72 Pneumotaxic area, 800, 802, 803 Pneumothorax, 796, 813 Podiatry, 25

Podocytes, 825, 827, 832 Poikilocytosis, 574 Poison ivy, 172 Polar body, 887

916, 943 second, 900, 901, 913, 943 Polar body biopsy, 900 Polar covalent bond, 44-45, 45 Polarity, 864

Poliomyelitis, 231, 302, 670, 801 Polyclonal response, 666 Polycystic kidney disease, 821 Polydactyly, 239, 239 Polydipsia, 866

Polygenic traits, 986-87, 987, 988 Polymerase chain reaction, 126,

132, 132t, 284 Polymorphism, 131 Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, 554 Polynucleotide, 56, 56 Polyp, colonic, 729 Polypeptide, 54, 110 Polyphagia, 539, 771 Polyploidy, 991 Polysaccharides, 50, 51, 739 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, 51 Polyuria, 850, 866 Pons, 412, 412, 413, 421, 422-23,

422, 425, 426t, 1026 Popliteal artery, 610, 629, 630, 631 Popliteal region, 24, 25 Popliteal vein, 608, 635, 636, 638 Popliteus muscle, 288

Pore, 179, 181

Porphyria variegata, 555

Porphyrin, 555

Porta hepatis, 709

Portal system, 514

Positive chemotaxis, 557

Positive feedback mechanism, 8,

564,918 Positive nitrogen balance, 744 Positron emission tomography,

58-59, 59 Postcoital test, 921t Posterior, definition of, 21 Posterior cavity, of eye, 484, 487 Posterior chamber, of eye, 484,

485, 486, 487 Posterior column, 402 Posterior fontanel, 225 Posterior funiculus, 403 Posterior horn, 402, 403, 436, 442 Posterior ligament, 227 Postganglionic fiber, 438-40, 441,

442, 443, 444 Postnatal development, 941,

961-70, 969t Postpartum period, 972 Post-polio syndrome, 302 Postsynaptic neuron, 379-80,

381, 382 Postsynaptic potential, 460 Posture, 312, 403, 408, 415, 422,

425, 478 Potassium, 71, 759, 761t blood, 527, 832t, 1031 electrolyte balance, 864-66,

864, 865 in extracellular fluid, 858, 859t glomerular filtrate, 832t in heart action, 599, 602 in human body, 40t imbalances in, 867 in intracellular fluid, 49, 50t,

759, 858, 859t in membrane potential, 374,

375, 376

in nerve impulse, 376-77,

377, 378t reabsorption in renal tubule, 865 secretion by renal tubule,

838-39, 838 urine, 832t Potassium channels, 70, 70t,

376, 377 abnormal, 71

Potassium hydroxide, 47t P-Q interval, 597 Pramipexole, 420 Precapillary sphincter, 604,

604, 616 Precipitation, 670t Pregame meal, 768 Preganglionic fiber, 438-40, 441,

442, 443, 444 Pregnancy, 903, 912-20. See also Embryonic stage; Fetus diet in, 960 drug abuse in, 950 ectopic, 916

fetal ultrasound, 10, 10, 11 hormonal changes during,

916-17, 917, 918t iron requirement in, 762 Rh blood group and, 573, 574 smoking during, 810

Pregnancy test, 668, 917 Pregnanediol, 921 Preimplantation genetic diagnosis,

944-45, 944, 945t Premature beat, 600 Premature infant lungs of, 958

respiratory distress syndrome in, 795

retrolental fibroplasia in, 807 Prenatal care, 953 Prenatal development, 940-62 body proportions, 955 embryonic stage of, 946-54, 946, 947, 949, 950, 951, 954, 949t fetal stage of, 954-61, 959, 959t period of cleavage, 942-46, 942, 943, 946, 959t Prenatal surgery, 960 Prenatal test, 978, 991-92, 995, 996t Prepatellar bursa, 275, 275,

288, 289 Prepuce, 882, 893, 893 Presbycusis, 496 Presbyopia, 490, 497 Pressure, 5, 6t Pressure receptors, 457, 457 Pressure sense, 457, 457, 458 Pressure ulcer, 172, 188 Presynaptic neuron, 379, 382 Primary follicle, 901, 904 Primary sex organs female, 898 male, 881 Prime mover, 317-18 Primer, 132

Primordial follicle, 900, 903, 904 P-R interval, 597 Procaine, 380 Process (bone), 196, 214t Procoagulants, 564 Procollagen, 153 Product of reaction, 45 Proerythroblasts, 549 Proflavine, 134t Progenitor cells, 142 Progeria, 971, 971 Progesterone, 52, 535, 908-10,

911, 912, 916-20, 918t, 950 Progesterone implant, 928t Progranulocytes, 549 Projection, 456 Prokaryotic cells, 65 Prolactin, 507t, 513, 515, 516,

520t, 920, 923 Prolactin release-inhibiting hormone, 507t, 515, 516 Prolactin-releasing factor, 507t,

515, 516 Prolactin-releasing hormone, 514 Promoter, 123 Pronation, 276, 280 Pronator quadratus muscle, 330,

331, 333t Pronator teres muscle, 330, 331,

333, 333t Prophase meiosis I, 886, 886 meiosis II, 887, 887 mitotic, 94, 95, 97, 99t Proprioceptive senses, 457 Proprioceptors, 425, 428, 456, 461,

478, 805 Prostacyclin, 568, 568t

Prostaglandin(s), 505-6, 506, 512, 529, 568, 621, 729, 742, 890, 912, 918 Prostaglandin D2, 672 Prostatectomy, 931 Prostate gland, 844, 846, 846, 847, 882, 891, 891, 895, 896t, 1013 cancer of, 203, 892 enlarged, 850, 892, 892t Prostate specific antigen, 892 Prostatic fluid, 891 Prostatic urethra, 846, 847 Prostatitis, 931 Protease, 113 Protease inhibitors, 679 Protein(s), 742-43 blood, 824, 1031 in cells, 52-56, 54, 55, 57t complete, 743

conformation of, 54, 56, 112 denaturation of, 54-56, 113 dietary sources of, 743-44 digestion of, 719-20, 720t, 721 energy value of, 745t, 746 incomplete, 743-44 membrane, 69, 72 metabolism of, 120, 121, 710,

712t, 743, 743, 744, 745t partially complete, 744 phosphorylation of, 508 primary structure of, 54, 55 quaternary structure of, 55, 56 requirements for, 744-45, 745t secondary structure of, 54, 55 synthesis of, 110, 111, 123,

125-30, 128, 129, 130t tertiary structure of, 54, 55 urine, 843 Protein buffer system, 869, 870t Protein hormones, 505, 506, 507t, 508, 743

Protein kinase, 508, 509, 510t, 511 Proteinuria, 771, 824, 837,

849, 875 Proteolytic enzymes, 707 Prothrombin (factor II), 564, 566,

567t, 753 Prothrombin activator, 564-65,

566, 567t, 568, 568t Prothrombin time, 565, 1032 Protons, 39-41, 40, 40t, 44 Protraction, 276, 280 Provitamins, 750, 771 Proximal, definition of, 21 Proximal convoluted tubule, 825, 827, 829, 831, 832, 836-37, 837, 843t Pruritus, 189 Pseudohermaphroditism, male, 897 Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, 144-45, 145, 148t, 169 Psoas major muscle, 37, 337,

339, 342t Psoriasis, 171, 956 Psychiatry, 25

Psychological stress, 446, 516, 536,

617, 803 Pteroylmonoglutamic acid, 757 Pterygium, 497 Pterygoid muscle lateral, 320, 321, 321t medial, 320, 321, 321t

Pterygoid plate lateral, 218 medial, 218 Puberty, 179-80

in female, 900-901, 908,

919-20 in male, 888, 897-98 Pubic arch, 240, 241, 242 Pubic bone, 274 Pubic tubercle, 241 Pubis, 240

Pubofemoral ligament, 286, 286 Pudendal artery deep external, 629 internal, 628, 629 superficial, 629, 630 Pudendal cleft, 906 Pudendal nerve, 338t, 436, 439 Pudendal vein, 637 Pulmonary artery, 35, 585, 586,

589, 590, 620, 621, 623, 788, 962, 963, 1008 Pulmonary circuit, 619-22, 620,

621, 961 Pulmonary edema, 622 Pulmonary embolism, 565, 608 Pulmonary plexus, 443 Pulmonary trunk, 34, 35, 583, 585, 586, 588, 589, 590, 591, 620, 623, 961, 962, 963 Pulmonary valve, 585, 586, 587,

587t, 588, 588, 589, 593 Pulmonary vein, 35, 585, 586, 588, 589, 590, 620, 621, 623, 788, 962, 963 Pulmonic sound, 593 Pulse, 609, 610 Pulse pressure, 612 Puncta, 481-82 Punnett square, 983, 984 Pupil, 484, 486

size of, 486, 488 Pupillary reflex, 486 Purified protein derivative, 673 Purkinje fibers, 583-84, 595-96,

596, 601 Purpura, 574

Pus, 71-72, 275, 557, 660, 660t Pustule, 180, 180t, 189 Putamen, 418, 421 P wave, 596, 598 Pyelolithotomy, 850 Pyelonephritis, 850 Pyelotomy, 850 Pyloric canal, 700, 701 Pyloric sphincter, 700, 701,

702, 706 Pyloric stenosis, 700 Pylorospasm, 730 Pyorrhea, 730 Pyramidal cells, of cerebral cortex, 414 Pyridostigmine bromide, 307 Pyridoxal, 755 Pyridoxamine, 755 Pyridoxine, 755 Pyruvic acid, 116-17, 116, 121

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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