O2 Co2

HCO3-Ca+2

CO3-2

Mg+2 PO4-3

SO4-2

Major component of body fluids (chapter 21, p. 857); medium in which most biochemical reactions occur; transports various chemical substances (chapter 14, p. 558); helps regulate body temperature (chapter 6, p. 182) Used in release of energy from glucose molecules (chapter 4, p. 119) Waste product that results from metabolism (chapter 4, p. 118); reacts with water to form carbonic acid (chapter 19, p. 811)

Help maintain acid-base balance (chapter 21, p. 868)

Necessary for bone development (chapter 7, p. 202); muscle contraction

(chapter 9, p. 304) and blood clotting (chapter 14, fig. 14.19) Component of bone tissue (chapter 7, p. 209) Help maintain water balance (chapter 21, p. 858) pH of the internal environment (chapters 19, p. 811, and 21, p. 866) Component of bone tissue (chapter 7, p. 209); required for certain metabolic processes (chapter 18, p. 760) Required for synthesis of ATP, nucleic acids, and other vital substances (chapter 4, p. 122); component of bone tissue (chapter 7, p. 209); help maintain polarization of cell membranes (chapter 10, p. 374) Required for polarization of cell membranes (chapter 10, p. 374) Required for polarization of cell membranes (chapter 10, p. 374); help maintain water balance (chapter 21, p. 858) Help maintain polarization of cell membranes (chapter 10, p. 374) and acid-base balance (chapter 21, p. 866)

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