O

obesity (o-bes'i-te) Excess adipose tissue; exceeding desirable weight by more than 20%. p. 748 occipital (ok-sip'i-tal) Pertaining to the lower, back portion of the head. p. 24 olfactory (ol-fak'to-re) Pertaining to the sense of smell. p. 463 oligodendrocyte (ol"i-go-den'dro-slt) A type of neuroglial cell that connects neurons to blood vessels and forms myelin. p. 371 oncogene (ong'ko-jen) A gene that normally controls cell division but when overexpressed leads to cancer. p. 103 oocyte (o'o-slt) An immature egg cell. p. 900

oogenesis (o'o-jen'e-sis) Differentiation of an egg cell. p. 900 ophthalmic (of-thal'mik) Pertaining to the eye. p. 624

optic (op'tik) Pertaining to the eye. p. 421 optic chiasma (op'tik ki-az'mah) X-shaped structure on the underside of the brain formed by a partial crossing over of fibers in the optic nerves. p. 421 optic disk (op'tik disk) Region in the retina of the eye where nerve fibers leave to become part of the optic nerve. p. 487 oral (o'ral) Pertaining to the mouth. p. 24 orbital (or'bi-tal) Pertaining to the body region of the eyeball; a region, in the atom, containing the electrons. p. 12 organ (or'gan) A structure consisting of a group of tissues that performs a specialized function. p. 9 organ of Corti (or'gan uv kor'te) An organ in the cochlear duct that contains the receptors for hearing. It consists of hair cells and supporting cells. p. 471 organic (or-gan'ik) Carbon-containing molecules. p. 49 organism (or'gah-nizm) An individual living thing. p. 4

organ system (or'gan sis'tem) Interconnected parts that function together. p. 9 orgasm (or'gaz-em) The culmination of sexual excitement. p. 893 orifice (or'i-fis) An opening. p. 847 origin (or'i-jin) End of a muscle that is attached to a relatively immovable part. p. 318

oropharynx (o"ro-far'ingks) Portion of the pharynx in the posterior part of the oral cavity. p. 695

osmoreceptor (oz"mo-re-sep'tor) Receptor that is sensitive to changes in the osmotic pressure of body fluids. p. 519 osmosis (oz-mo'sis) Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane in response to a concentration gradient. p. 86

osmotic pressure (oz-mot'ik presh'ur) The amount of pressure needed to stop osmosis; the potential pressure of a solution caused by nondiffusible solute particles in the solution. p. 86 osseous tissue (os'e-us tish'u) Bone tissue. p. 471

ossification (os"ï-fï-ka'shun) The formation of bone tissue. p. 200 osteoblast (os'te-o-blast") A bone-forming cell. p. 200

osteoclast (os'te-o-klast") A cell that erodes bone. p. 202 osteocyte (os'te-o-slt) A mature bone cell. p. 158

osteon (os'te-on) A cylinder-shaped unit containing bone cells that surround an osteonic canal; Haversian system. p. 158 osteonic canal (os'te-o-nik ka-nal') A tiny channel in bone tissue that contains a blood vessel; Haversian canal. p. 158 osteoporosis (os"te-o-po-ro'sis) A condition in which bones break easily because calcium is removed from them faster than it is replaced. p. 210 otic (o'tik) Pertaining to the ear. p. 24 otolith (o'to-lith) A small particle of calcium carbonate associated with the receptors of equilibrium. p. 479 otosclerosis (o"to-skle-ro'sis) Abnormal formation of spongy bone within the ear that may interfere with the transmission of sound vibrations to hearing receptors. p. 477

oval window (o'val win'do) Opening between the stapes and the inner ear. p. 469 ovarian (o-va're-an) Pertaining to the ovary. p. 898

ovary (o'var-e) The primary reproductive organ of a female; an egg cell-producing organ. p. 898 oviduct (o'vl-dukt) A tube that leads from the ovary to the uterus; uterine tube or fallopian tube. p. 902 ovulation (o"vu-la'shun) The release of an egg cell from a mature ovarian follicle. p. 902

ovum (o'vum) A mature egg cell. p. 900 oxidase (ok'sï-das) An enzyme that promotes oxidation. p. 114 oxidation (ok"sï-da'shun) Process by which oxygen is combined with another chemical; the removal of hydrogen or the loss of electrons; the opposite of reduction. p. 114

oxidative phosphorylation (ok'sl-da-tiv fos"fo-ri-la'shun) The process of transferring electrons to form a high-energy phosphate bond by introducing a phosphate group to ADP and forming ATP. p. 114

Shier-Butler-Lewis: I Back Matter I Glossary I I © The McGraw-Hill

Human Anatomy and Companies, 2001

Physiology, Ninth Edition oxygen debt (ok'si-jen det) The amount of oxygen that must be supplied following physical exercise to convert accumulated lactic acid to glucose. p. 309 oxyhemoglobin (ok"si-he"mo-glot>in)

Compound formed when oxygen combines with hemoglobin. p. 548 oxytocin (ok"si-to'sin) Hormone released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that contracts smooth muscles in the uterus and mammary glands. p. 518

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Gaining Weight 101

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