N

Nacre, 209

1035, 1036 NADH, 116-18, 116, 118, 119 Nail(s), 178, 179

disorders affecting, 179 Nail bed, 178, 179 Nail plate, 178, 179 Narcolepsy, 424t Nasal bone, 211t, 214, 215, 219, 221, 221, 224t, 225, 255, 256, 257, 357 Nasal cavity, 12, 14, 217, 219, 220, 221, 464, 465, 692, 695, 780,

780, 792t, 1006 Nasal concha, 780

781, 1007

222, 257, 263, 780, 781 superior, 217, 218, 219, 464,

465, 780, 781 Nasal continuous positive airway pressure, 800 Nasal region, 24, 25, 257 Nasal septum, 221, 221, 465,

780, 1010 Nasolacrimal duct, 482, 482 Nasopharynx, 692, 695, 781

Natural killer cells, 663 Naturally acquired active immunity, 670, 672t Naturally acquired passive immunity, 672, 672t Nausea, 707 Navicular, 246 Near drowning, 809 Nearsightedness, 489, 491, 967 Neck arteries to, 623-25, 626 sagittal section of, 1007 surface anatomy of, 357 transverse section of, 1011 veins from, 632, 632 Necrosis, 82, 172, 608 Negative feedback mechanism, 8, 120, 122, 552 control of hormonal secretions, 512, 513, 514 Negative nitrogen balance, 744 Neon, 41t

Neonate, 962-65, 965, 969t circulatory system of, 965, 966 drug addition in, 950 maternal antibodies in, 667, 672 Neonatology, 24, 958 Nephrectomy, 850 Nephritis, 828 Nephrolithiasis, 850 Nephrology, 24

Nephron(s), 821, 823, 825-30, 826, 827, 830, 831, 838, 839, 843t, 849 blood supply of, 829-30, 831 cortical, 829, 830 juxtamedullary, 829, 830 Nephron loop (loop of Henle), 825, 829, 831, 837, 839-40, 841 ascending limb of, 825,

827, 843t descending limb of, 825, 827, 843t Nephroptosis, 850 Nephrotic syndrome, 836-37 Nerve, 363 Nerve block, 461 Nerve fiber, 429. See also Axon autonomic, 438, 441 classification of, 428 regeneration of, 372-73, 373, 411 Nerve gas, 73, 307 Nerve growth factor, 373 Nerve impulse, 14, 363-64, 366, 376-77 conduction of, 378-79, 378, 378t, 379, 382 factors affecting, 380 speed of, 378 convergence of, 385, 386 divergence of, 385, 386 processing of, 383-86, 386 Nerve tract, 402, 409t Nervous system, 14, 17, 19t, 20 age-related changes in,

446-48, 969t central. See Central nervous system functions of, 363-68 information flow from environment through, 456t peripheral. See Peripheral nervous system system interconnections of, 389

Nervous tissue, 142, 143t, 161, 162, 163t site of gene therapy, 997, 997 Nervous tunic, 483 Net filtration pressure, 833 Neural cellular adhesion molecules, 411 Neuralgia, 448, 497 Neural stem cells, 411 Neural tube, 411-12, 412, 954 Neural tube defect, 412, 553,

756, 954 Neurilemma, 365, 428 Neurilemmal sheath, 365, 367 Neuritis, 448, 497 Neurofibril, 364, 366, 367 Neurofibromatosis, 945t Neuroglia, 161, 162, 363, 363, 373, 533 abnormal, 372 classification of, 370-72, 371, 372t Neurological examination, 407 Neurology, 24 Neuroma, 373 Neuromodulators, 381 Neuromuscular junction, 302, 305, 306, 306

Neuron(s), 65, 66, 97-98, 101, 161, 162, 363-64, 363, 366 accelerator, 370 action potential of, 376-77 all-or-none response of, 378 bipolar, 368-69, 369, 370t, 487,

488, 495 classification of, 368-70, 370t depolarized, 376, 377 hyperpolarized, 376, 377 inhibitory, 370 local potential changes, 3 76 membrane potential, 374, 374 motor, 302, 305, 306, 308t, 314, 369, 370, 370t, 403, 404, 405, 406t, 428 multipolar, 369, 369, 370t pH sensitivity of, 870 pools of, 383-85 postsynaptic, 379-80, 381, 382 presynaptic, 379, 382 refractory period, 377 resting potential, 374-75, 375 sensory, 369-70, 369, 370t,

404, 405, 406t synapse, 379-83 threshold potential, 376 unipolar, 369, 369, 370t Neuronal pools, 383-85 Neuropeptide, 381-83, 383t Neuropeptide Y, 739, 749 Neurosecretory cells, 513, 514 Neurotransmitters, 302, 363,

379-81, 382, 383t, 387, 474 actions of, 383t, 442-45 autonomic, 440-45, 445 disorders associated with imbalances of, 384t drugs that alter levels of, 384t release of, 384t reuptake of, 381 Neutralization, 670t Neutral solution, 48 Neutrons, 39-40, 40, 40t Neutrophil(s), 549, 553-54, 556, 557, 560t, 561, 661, 667, 670

Neutrophilia, 574 Newborn jaundice, 185 Niacin, 754-55, 754, 758t Niacinamide, 754, 754 Nicholas II (Tsar of Russia), 126 Nicotine, 384t, 442, 783, 926t Nicotine addiction, 387-88, 388 Nicotine patch, 176 Nicotinic receptors, 387-88, 388,

442-45, 447 Niemann-Pick disease, 640-41 Night blindness, 494, 751 Nipple, 31, 919-20, 922 Nitric oxide, 49, 616, 639, 881 Nitrites, 134t Nitrogen, 40t, 41t Nitrogen balance, 744 Nitrogenous base, 121, 122 Nitroglycerin, 468 Nitrosamines, 134t Nocturnal emissions, 895 Nocturnal enuresis, 848 Nodal rhythm, 601 Nodes of Ranvier, 365, 366, 367,

378-79, 379, 428 Non-A-E hepatitis, 713 Nondisjunction, 991, 993, 994 Nondrolone, 510 Nonelectrolyte, 49 Nonheritable gene therapy, 994 Nonprotein nitrogenous substances, in blood, 562-63

Nonrespiratory air movements,

799, 800t Nonspecific defense, 659-61, 661t Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 292, 729 Norepinephrine, 315, 381, 383t, 384t, 387, 440, 445, 445, 505, 506, 507t, 511-12, 525, 527, 528t, 597, 616, 618, 963 Normal range, 8 Normoblasts, 549 Nose, 780, 792t Nostril, 780, 780, 781 Nuclear envelope, 65, 67, 81, 85t Nuclear pore, 81, 85, 123 Nuclear power plant, 46t Nuclear weapons, 46t Nuclease, 707, 720t Nuclei (gray matter), 422 Nucleic acids catabolism of, 866, 868 in cells, 56-57, 56, 57, 57t Nucleolus, 67, 81, 85t, 86, 94 Nucleoplasm, 81 Nucleoside analogs, 679 Nucleotides, 56, 56, 57t, 121, 122,

123, 124 Nucleus, atomic, 39-40, 40, 40t Nucleus, cell, 65, 67, 81-82, 84 Nucleus accumbens, 387 Nucleus cuneatus, 423 Nucleus gracilis, 423 Nucleus pulposus, 231, 273 Nutrients, 738. See also specific nutrients absorption in small intestine,

720-23, 721, 722, 722t blood, 561-62, 561 essential, 738 movement across capillaries, 605

Nutrition, 738-71

age-related changes in, 770-71 athlete and, 768 in pregnancy, 956-57 Nutritional edema, 745 Nyctalopia, 771 Nystagmus, 492, 497

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