The arm is one of the more freely movable parts of the body because muscles connect the humerus to regions of the pectoral girdle, ribs, and vertebral column. These muscles can be grouped according to their primary actions—flexion, extension, abduction, and rotation (figs. 9.27, 9.28, 9.29; reference plates 62, 63, 64; table 9.7).
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.