chapter objectives

After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to

1. Define nutrition, nutrients, and essential nutrients.

2. List the major sources of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

3. Describe how cells utilize carbohydrates.

4. Describe how cells utilize lipids.

5. Describe how cells utilize amino acids.

6. Define nitrogen balance.

7. Explain how the energy values of foods are determined.

8. Explain the factors that affect an individual's energy requirements.

9. Define energy balance.

10. Explain what is meant by desirable weight.

11. List the fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins.

12. Describe the general functions of each vitamin.

13. Distinguish between a vitamin and a mineral.

14. List the major minerals and trace elements.

15. Describe the general functions of each mineral and trace element.

16. Describe an adequate diet.

17. Distinguish between primary and secondary malnutrition.

18. What factors may lead to inadequate nutrition later in life?

Understanding ^Vo rds bas-, base: basal metabolic rate— metabolic rate of body under resting (basal) conditions. calor-, heat: calorie—unit used to measure heat or energy content of foods. carot-, carrot: carotene—

yellowish plant pigment responsible for the color of carrots and other yellowish plant parts. lip-, fat: lipids—fat or fatlike substance insoluble in water. mal-, bad, abnormal:

malnutrition—poor nutrition resulting from lack of food or failure to use available foods to best advantage. -meter, measure: calorimeter— instrument used to measure the caloric content of food. nutri-, nourish: nutrient— substance needed to nourish cells. obes-, fat: obesity—condition in which the body contains excess fat. pell-, skin: pellagra—vitamin deficiency condition characterized by inflammation of the skin and other symptoms.

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