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macromineral (mak'ro-min"er-al) An inorganic substance that is necessary for metabolism and is one of a group that accounts for 75% of the mineral elements within the body; major mineral. p. 757

macromolecule (mak'ro-mol'e-kul) A very large molecule. p. 9 macrophage (mak'ro-faj) A large phagocytic cell. p. 151

macula (mak'u-lah) A group of hair cells and supporting cells associated with an organ of static equilibrium. p. 475 macula lutea (mak'u-lah lu'te-ah) A

yellowish depression in the retina of the eye that is associated with acute vision. p. 487

malabsorption (mal"ab-sorp'shun) Failure to absorb nutrients following digestion. p. 722 malignant (mah-lig'nant) The power to threaten life; cancerous. p. 100 malnutrition (mal"nu-trish'un) Physical symptoms resulting from lack of specific nutrients. p. 767 maltase (mawl'taIs) An enzyme that catalyzes conversion of maltose into glucose. p. 719 maltose (mawl'toIs) A disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules. p. 719 mammary (mam'ar-e) Pertaining to the breast. p. 24 mammillary body (mam'i-lar"e bod'e) One of two small, rounded bodies posterior to the hypothalamus involved with reflexes associated with the sense of smell. p. 421 marasmus (mah-raz'mus) Starvation due to profound nutrient deficiency. p. 769 marrow (mar'o) Connective tissue that occupies the spaces within bones and includes stem cells. p. 197 mast cell (mast sel) A cell to which antibodies, formed in response to allergens, attach, bursting the cell and releasing allergy mediators, which cause symptoms. p. 151

mastication (mast"i-ka'shun) Chewing movements. p. 322 matrix (ma'triks) The intercellular substance of connective tissue. p. 151 matter (mat'er) Anything that has weight and occupies space. p. 39 meatus (me-a'tus) A passageway or channel, or the external opening of such a passageway. p. 214 mechanoreceptor (mek"ah-no-re-sep'tor) A sensory receptor that is sensitive to mechanical stimulation such as changes in pressure or tension. p. 455 medial (me'de-al) Toward or near the midline. p. 21 mediastinum (me"de-ah-sti'num) Tissues and organs of the thoracic cavity that form a septum between the lungs. p. 12 medulla (mei-dul'ah) The inner portion of an organ. p. 525 medulla oblongata (mei-dul'ah ob"long-gah'tah) Portion of the brain stem located between the pons and the spinal cord. p. 422 medullary cavity (med'u-lar"e kav'i-te)

Cavity within the diaphysis of a long bone containing marrow. p. 197 medullary rhythmicity area (med'u-laIr"e rith-mi'si-te aIr'e-a) Area of the brain stem that controls the basic rhythm of inspiration and expiration. p. 800

megakaryocyte (meg"ah-kar'e-o-sIt) A large bone marrow cell that gives rise to blood platelets. p. 558 meiosis (mi-o'sis) A form of cell division that halves the genetic material, resulting in egg and sperm cells (gametes). p. 884 Meissner's corpuscle (mIs'nerz kor'pus-l) Sensory receptor close to the surface of the skin that is sensitive to light touch. p. 175

melanin (mel'ah-nin) Dark pigment found in skin and hair. p. 172 melanocyte (mel'ah-no-sIt) Melanin-

producing cell. p. 172 melatonin (mel"ah-to'nin) A hormone secreted by the pineal gland. p. 533 memory cell (mem'o-re sel) B-lymphocyte or T-lymphocyte produced in a primary immune response that remains dormant and can be activated rapidly if the same antigen is encountered in the future. p. 663

menarche (mei-nar'ke) The first menstrual period. p. 909 meninx (me'-ninks) Membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord (pl., meninges). p. 396

meniscus (men-is'kus) Fibrocartilage that separates the articulating surfaces of bones in the knee (pl., menisci). p. 275 menopause (men'o-pawz) Termination of the menstrual cycle. p. 910 menstrual cycle (men'stroo-al si'kl)

Recurring changes in the uterine lining of a woman of reproductive age. p. 908 menstruation (men"stroo-a'shun) Loss of blood and tissue from the uterine lining at the end of a female reproductive cycle. p. 908

mental (men'tal) Pertaining to the mind;

pertaining to the chin body region. p. 24 merocrine gland (mer'o-krin gland) Cells of structure remain intact while secreting products formed within the cell. p. 148 mesentery (mes'en-ter"e) A fold of peritoneal membrane that attaches an abdominal organ to the abdominal wall. p. 717 mesoderm (mez'o-derm) The middle primary germ layer. p. 946 messenger RNA (mes'in-jer RNA) RNA that transmits information for a protein's amino acid sequence from the nucleus of a cell to the cytoplasm. p. 123 metabolic pathway (met"ah-bol'ik path'wa) A series of enzymatically controlled chemical reactions. p. 112 metabolic rate (met"ah-bol'ic raIt) The rate at which chemical changes occur within the body. p. 520 metabolism (mei-tab'o-lizm) All of the chemical reactions in cells that use or release energy. p. 5 metacarpals (met"ah-kar'pals) Bones of the hand between the wrist and finger bones. p. 212

metaphase (met'ah-faz) Stage in mitosis when chromosomes align in the center of the cell p. 95

metastasis (mei-tas'tah-sis) The spread of disease from one body region to another; a characteristic of cancer. p. 143 metatarsal (met"ah-tar'sal) Bone of the foot between the ankle and toe bones. p. 213 microfilament (mi"kro-fil'ah-ment) A rod of the protein actin or myosin that provides structural support or movement in the cytoplasm. p. 80 microglia (mi-krog'le-ah) Neuroglial cells that support neurons and phagocytize. p. 372

micromineral (mi'kro-min"er-al) An essential mineral present in a minute amount within the body; trace element. p. 762

microtubule (mi'kro-tu'bul) A hollow rod of the protein tubulin in the cytoplasm. p. 80 microvillus (mi"kro-vil'us) Cylindrical process that extends from some epithelial cell membranes and increases the membrane surface area. (pl., microvilli) p. 718

micturition (mik"tu-rish'un) Urination. p. 847

midbrain (mid'bran) A small region of the brain stem between the diencephalon and the pons. p. 411 mineralocorticoids (min"er-al-o-kor'ti-koids) Hormones the adrenal cortex secretes that influence the concentrations of electrolytes in body fluids. p. 527 mitochondrion (mi"to-kon'dre-on) Organelle housing enzymes that catalyze reactions of aerobic respiration (pl., mitochondria). p. 77

mitosis (mi-to'sis) Division of a somatic cell to form two genetically identical cells. p. 95

mitral valve (mi'tral valv) Heart valve located between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve. p. 585 mixed nerve (mikst nerv) Nerve that includes both sensory and motor nerve fibers. p. 426 molar (mo'lar) A rear tooth with a flattened surface adapted for grinding food. p. 693 molecular formula (mo-lek'u-lar for'mu-lah) An abbreviation for the number of atoms of each element in a compound. p. 41

molecule (mol'e-kul) A particle composed of two or more joined atoms. p. 9 monoamine inhibitor (mon"o-am'in in-hib'i-tor) A substance that inhibits the action of the enzyme monoamine oxidase. p. 384 monocyte (mon'o-slt) A type of white blood cell that functions as a phagocyte. p. 556 monosaccharide (mon"o-sak'ah-rld) A single sugar, such as glucose or fructose. p. 50 monosomy (mon'o-so"me) A cell missing one chromosome. p. 991 morula (mor'u-lah) An early stage in prenatal development; a solid ball of cells. p. 942

motor area (mo'tor a're-ah) A region of the brain from which impulses to muscles or glands originate. p. 414

motor end plate (mo'tor end plait)

Specialized portion of a muscle fiber membrane at a neuromuscular junction. p. 302

motor nerve (mo'tor nerv) A nerve that consists of motor nerve fibers. p. 426 motor neuron (mo'tor nu'ron) A neuron that transmits impulses from the central nervous system to an effector. p. 302 motor unit (mo'tor unit) A motor neuron and the muscle fibers associated with it. p. 312

mucosa (mu-ko'sah) The membrane that lines tubes and body cavities that open to the outside of the body; mucous membrane. p. 687 mucous cell (mu'kus sel) Glandular cell that secretes mucus. p. 695 mucous membrane (mu'kus mem'bran)

Mucosa. p. 169 mucus (mu'kus) Fluid secretion of the mucous cells. p. 695 multiple motor unit summation (mul'ti-pl mo'tor u'nit sum-ma'shun) A sustained muscle contraction of increasing strength in response to input from many motor units. p. 312 multipolar neuron (mul"tl-po'lar nu'ron) Nerve cell that has many processes arising from its cell body. p. 369 muscle impulse (mus'el im'puls) Impulse that travels along the sarcolemma to the transverse tubules. p. 304 muscle spindle (mus'el spin'dul) Modified skeletal muscle fiber that can respond to changes in muscle length. p. 461 muscle tone (mus'el ton) The contraction of some fibers in skeletal muscle at any given time. p. 312 mutagen (mu'tah-jen) An agent that can cause mutations. p. 134 mutation (mu-ta'shun) A change in a gene. p. 129

myelin (mi'ei-lin) Fatty material that forms a sheathlike covering around some nerve fibers. p. 365 myocardium (mi"o-kar'de-um) Muscle tissue of the heart. p. 583 myofibril (mi"o-fi'bril) Contractile fibers within muscle cells. p. 300 myoglobin (mi"o-glo'bin) A pigmented compound in muscle tissue that stores oxygen. p. 309 myogram (mi'o-gram) A recording of a muscular contraction. p. 311 myometrium (mi"o-me'tre-um) The layer of smooth muscle tissue within the uterine wall. p. 905 myoneural junction (mi"o-nu'ral jungk'shun) Site of union between a motor neuron axon and a muscle fiber. p. 302 myopia (mi-o'pe-ah) Nearsightedness. p. 491

myosin (mi'o-sin) A protein that, together with actin, produces muscular contraction and relaxation. p. 300 myxedema (mik"sei-de'mah) A deficiency of thyroid hormones in an adult. p. 522

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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