Life Span Changes page 53

Endocrine glands tend to shrink and accumulate fibrous connective tissue, fat, and lipofuscin, but hormonal activities usually remain within the normal range.

1. GH levels even out, as muscular strength declines.

2. ADH levels increase due to slowed breakdown.

3. The thyroid shrinks but control of metabolism continues.

4. Decreasing levels of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone increase osteoporosis risk.

5. The adrenal glands show aging-related changes, but negative feedback maintains functions.

6. Muscle, liver, and fat cells may develop insulin resistance.

7. Changes in melatonin secretion affect the body clock.

8. Thymosin production declines, hampering infectious disease resistance.

Based on your understanding of the actions of glucagon and insulin, would a person with diabetes mellitus be likely to require more insulin or more sugar following strenuous exercise? Why?

What problems might result from the prolonged administration of cortisol to a person with a severe inflammatory disease?

How might the environment of a patient with hyperthyroidism be modified to minimize the drain on body energy resources?

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