Lifespan Changes

The redundancies and overlap of function built into our nervous systems ensure that we can perceive and interact with the environment for many decades. In a sense, aging of this organ system actually begins before birth, as apo-ptosis, a form of programmed cell death, occurs in the brain, essentially carving out the structures that will remain. This normal dying off of neurons continues throughout life. When brain apoptosis fails, disease results. The brains of individuals who die of schizophrenia

(a) Parasympathetic neurons

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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