Laboratory Tests of Clinical Importance

Common Tests Performed on Blood

Test

Normal Values* (adult)

Clinical Significance

Albumin (serum)

3.2-5.5 g/100 mL

Values increase in multiple myeloma and decrease with proteinuria and as a result of severe burns.

Albumin-globulin ratio, or A/G ratio (serum)

1.5:1 to 2.5:1

Ratio of albumin to globulin is lowered in kidney diseases and malnutrition.

Ammonia

12-55 j mol/L

Values increase in severe liver disease, pneumonia, shock, and congestive heart failure.

Amylase (serum)

4-25 units/mL

Values increase in acute pancreatitis, intestinal obstructions, and mumps. They decrease in chronic pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and toxemia of pregnancy.

Bilirubin, total (serum)

0-1.0 mg/100 mL

Values increase in conditions causing red blood cell destruction or biliary obstruction.

Blood urea nitrogen, or BUN (plasma or serum)

8-25 mg/100 mL

Values increase in various kidney disorders and decrease in liver failure and during pregnancy.

Calcium (serum)

8.5-10.5 mg/100 mL

Values increase in hyperparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D, and respiratory conditions that cause a rise in CO2 concentration. They decrease in hypoparathyroidism, malnutrition, and severe diarrhea.

Carbon dioxide (serum)

24-30 mEq/L

Values increase in respiratory diseases, intestinal obstruction, and vomiting. They decrease in acidosis, nephritis, and diarrhea.

Chloride (serum)

100-106 mEq/L

Values increase in nephritis, Cushing syndrome, dehydration, and hyperventilation. They decrease in metabolic acidosis, Addison disease, diarrhea, and following severe burns.

Cholesterol, total (serum)

120-220 mg/100 mL (below 200 mg/100 mL recommended by the American Heart Association)

Values increase in diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism. They decrease in pernicious anemia, hyperthyroidism, and acute infections.

Cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)

Women: 30-80 mg/100 mL Men: 30-70 mg/100 mL

Values increase in liver disease. Decreased values are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis.

Cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

62-185 mg/100 mL

Increased values are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis.

Creatine (serum)

0.2-0.8 mg/100 mL

Values increase in muscular dystrophy, nephritis, severe damage to muscle tissue, and during pregnancy.

Creatinine (serum)

0.6-1.5 mg/100 mL

Values increase in various kidney diseases.

Ferritin (serum)

Men: 10-270 jg/100 mL Women: 5-280 jg/100 mL

Values correlate with total body iron store. They decrease with iron deficiency.

Globulin (serum)

2.3-3.5 g/100 mL

Values increase as a result of chronic infections.

Glucose (plasma)

70-110 mg/100 mL

Values increase in diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, nephritis, hyperthyroidism, and pregnancy. They decrease in hyperinsulinism, hypothyroidism, and Addison disease.

*These values may vary with hospital, physician, and type of equipment used to make measurements.

*These values may vary with hospital, physician, and type of equipment used to make measurements.

Shier-Butler-Lewis: I Back Matter I Appendix C: Laboratory I I © The McGraw-Hill

Human Anatomy and Tests of Clinical Companies, 2001

Physiology, Ninth Edition Importance

Common Tests Performed on Blood—continued

Test

Normal Values* (adult)

Clinical Significance

Hematocrit (whole blood)

Men: 40-54% Women: 37-47% Children: 35-49% (varies with age)

Values increase in polycythemia due to dehydration or shock. They decrease in anemia and following severe hemorrhage.

Hemoglobin (whole blood)

Men: 14-18 g/100 mL Women: 12-16 g/100 mL Children: 11.2-16.5 g/100 mL (varies with age)

Values increase in polycythemia, obstructive pulmonary diseases, congestive heart failure, and at high altitudes. They decrease in anemia, pregnancy, and as a result of severe hemorrhage or excessive fluid intake.

Iron (serum)

50-150 jg/100 mL

Values increase in various anemias and liver disease. They decrease in iron-deficiency anemia.

Iron-binding capacity (serum)

250-410 jg/100 mL

Values increase in iron-deficiency anemia and pregnancy. They decrease in pernicious anemia, liver disease, and chronic infections.

Lactic acid (whole blood)

0.6-1.8 mEq/L

Values increase with muscular activity and in congestive heart failure, severe hemorrhage, and shock.

Lactic dehydrogenase, or LDH (serum)

45-90 U/L

Values increase in pernicious anemia, myocardial infarction, liver disease, acute leukemia, and widespread carcinoma.

Lipids, total (serum)

450-850 mg/100 mL

Values increase in hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and nephritis. They decrease in hyperthyroidism.

Magnesium

1.3-2.1 mEq/L

Values increase in renal failure, hypothyroidism, and Addison disease. They decrease in renal disease, liver disease, and pancreatitis.

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)

26-32 pg/RBC

Values increase in macrocytic anemia. They decrease in microcytic anemia.

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)

86-98 j mm3/RBC

Values increase in liver disease and pernicious anemia. They decrease in iron-deficiency anemia.

Osmolality 275-295 osmol/kg Values increase in dehydration, hypercalcemia, and diabetes mellitus. They decrease in hyponatremia, Addison's disease, and water intoxication.

Oxygen saturation (whole Arterial: 96-100% Values increase in polycythemia and decrease in anemia and blood) Venous: 60-85% obstructive pulmonary diseases.

pH (whole blood)

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