of the upper teeth

During development, portions of the maxillary bones called palatine processes grow together and fuse along the midline, or median palatine suture. This forms the anterior section of the hard palate (see fig. 7.22).

The inferior border of each maxillary bone projects downward, forming an alveolar (al-ve'o-lar) process. Together these processes form a horseshoe-shaped alveolar arch (dental arch). Teeth occupy cavities in this arch (dental alveoli). Dense connective tissue binds teeth to the bony sockets (see chapter 17, p. 694).

In cleft palate, the palatine processes of the maxillae are incompletely fused at birth. However, the defect in facial bone development actually occurs early in development. Infants with cleft palate may have trouble suckling because of the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. A temporary prosthetic device (artificial palate) may be inserted within the mouth, or a special type of rubber nipple can be used on bottles, until surgery can be performed.

2. Palatine bones. The L-shaped palatine (pal'ah-tin) bones (fig. 7.28) are located behind the maxillae. The horizontal portions form the posterior section of the hard palate and the floor of the nasal cavity. The perpendicular portions help form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.

3. Zygomatic bones. The zygomatic (zi"go-mat'ik) bones are responsible for the prominences of the cheeks below and to the sides of the eyes. These bones also help form the lateral walls and the floors of the orbits. Each bone has a temporal process, which extends posteriorly to join the zygomatic

Horizontal portion


Horizontal portion

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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