Odontoid Process With Blood Vessels

Figure

(a) Lateral view of a typical thoracic vertebra. (b) Adjacent vertebrae join at their articulating processes. (c) Superior view of a typical thoracic vertebra.

Anterior

Posterior

Fovea dentis (facet that articulates with dens of axis)

Transverse foramen

Transverse process

Facet that articulates with occipital condyle

Transverse foramen

Transverse process

Dens (odontoid process) Superior articular facet

Anterior articular facet for atlas Dens

Dens (odontoid process) Superior articular facet

Facet For Dens

Anterior articular facet for atlas Dens

Bifid spinous process

Bifid spinous process

Figure 7.36

Superior view of the (a) atlas and (b) axis. (c) Lateral view of the axis.

Bifid spinous process

Bifid spinous process

Inferior articulating Transverse process process

Figure 7.36

Superior view of the (a) atlas and (b) axis. (c) Lateral view of the axis.

Figure 7.37

Radiograph of the cervical vertebrae.

Body

Lamina

Body

Lamina

Bifid spinous process

Vertebral foramen

Superior articular facet

Transverse foramen Transverse process

Cervical vertebra

Cervical vertebra

Figure 7.37

Radiograph of the cervical vertebrae.

Sacrum

The sacrum (sa'krum) is a triangular structure at the base of the vertebral column. It is composed of five vertebrae that develop separately but gradually fuse between ages eighteen and thirty. The spinous processes of these fused bones form a ridge of tubercles, the median sacral crest. Nerves and blood vessels pass through rows of openings, called the dorsal sacral foramina, located to the sides of the tubercles (fig. 7.39).

The sacrum is wedged between the coxae of the pelvis and is united to them at its auricular surfaces by fibrocarti-lage of the sacroiliac joints. The pelvic girdle transmits the body's weight to the legs at these joints (see fig. 7.17).

The sacrum forms the posterior wall of the pelvic cavity. The upper anterior margin of the sacrum, which represents the body of the first sacral vertebra, is called the sacral promontory (sa'kral prom'on-to"re). During a vaginal examination, a physician can feel this projection and use it as a guide in determining the size of the pelvis. This measurement is helpful in estimating how easily an infant may be able to pass through a woman's pelvic cavity during childbirth.

The vertebral foramina of the sacral vertebrae form the sacral canal, which continues through the sacrum to an opening of variable size at the tip, called the sacral hiatus (hi-a'tus). This foramen exists because the laminae of the last sacral vertebra are not fused. On the ventral surface of the sacrum, four pairs of pelvic sacral foramina provide passageways for nerves and blood vessels.

Lamina

Pedicle

Body

Lamina

Pedicle

Body

Cross Section Meninges

Thoracic vertebra

Bifid spinous process

Vertebral foramen

Superior articular facet

Transverse foramen Transverse process

Spinous process

Transverse process

\jf-— Facet that articulates with rib tubercle

Superior articular facet

Vertebral foramen Facet that articulates with rib head

Thoracic vertebra

Lamina

Pedicle

Body

Lamina

Pedicle

Spinous process

Superior articular facet

Transverse process

Vertebral foramen

Spinous process

Superior articular facet

Transverse process

Vertebral foramen

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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