Superior Illiac Spine

(c)

(a) Anterior view and (b) posterior view of the pelvic girdle. This girdle provides an attachment for the lower limbs and together with the sacrum and coccyx forms the pelvis. (c) Radiograph of the pelvic girdle.

Iliac crest

Iliac crest

Iliac crest

Iliac crest

Illiac Crest Blood Vessels

Ischial tuberosity

Figure 7.50

(a) Medial surface of the left coxa. (b) Lateral view.

Posterior superior iliac spine

Posterior inferior iliac spine

Greater sciatic notch

Ischial spine

Lesser sciatic notch

Figure 7.50

(a) Medial surface of the left coxa. (b) Lateral view.

Posterior superior iliac spine

Posterior inferior iliac spine

Greater sciatic notch

Ischial spine

Lesser sciatic notch

Ischial tuberosity

Flared ilium

-f--Sacral promontory

Pelvic brim

Symphysis pubis

Flared ilium

Pelvic brim

Sacral promontory

Pubis Symphysis

Symphysis pubis

Pubic arch

Figure 7.51

The female pelvis is usually wider in all diameters and roomier than that of the male. (a) Female pelvis. (b) Male pelvis.

Sacral promontory

Pubic arch

Figure 7.51

The female pelvis is usually wider in all diameters and roomier than that of the male. (a) Female pelvis. (b) Male pelvis.

bones, and anteriorly by the abdominal wall. The false pelvis helps support the abdominal organs.

The lesser pelvis is bounded posteriorly by the sacrum and coccyx, and laterally and anteriorly by the lower ilium, ischium, and pubis bones. This portion of the pelvis surrounds a short, canal-like cavity that has an upper inlet and a lower outlet. An infant passes through this cavity during childbirth.

Differences between Male and Female Pelves

Some basic structural differences distinguish the male and the female pelves, even though it may be difficult to find all of the "typical" characteristics in any one individual. These differences arise from the function of the female pelvis as a birth canal. Usually, the female iliac bones are more flared than those of the male, and consequently, the female hips are usually broader than the male's. The angle of the female pubic arch may be greater, there may be more distance between the ischial spines and the ischial tuberosities, and the sacral cur vature may be shorter and flatter. Thus, the female pelvic cavity is usually wider in all diameters than that of the male. Also, the bones of the female pelvis are usually lighter, more delicate, and show less evidence of muscle attachments (fig. 7.51). Table 7.11 summarizes some of the differences between the female and male skeletons.

O Locate and name each bone that forms the pelvis.

^9 Distinguish between the greater pelvis and the lesser pelvis.

^9 How are male and female pelves different?

lower limb

The bones of the lower limb form the frameworks of the thigh, leg, and foot. They include a femur, a tibia, a fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges (fig. 7.52).

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