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How would removal of 95% of the stomach (subtotal gastrectomy) to treat severe ulcers or cancer affect the digestion and absorption of foods? How would the patients have to alter eating habits? Why? Why may a person with inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) also develop an inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)?

What effect is a before-dinner alcoholic cocktail likely to have on digestion? Why are such beverages inadvisable for persons with ulcers?

What type of acid-alkaline disorder is likely to develop if the stomach contents are repeatedly lost by vomiting over a prolonged period? What acid-alkaline disorder may develop as a result of prolonged diarrhea? Several years ago, an extract from kidney beans was sold in health-food stores as a "starch blocker." Advertisements claimed that one could eat a plate of spaghetti, yet absorb none of it, because starch-digesting enzyme function would be blocked. The kidney bean product indeed kept salivary amylase from functioning. However, people who took the starch blocker developed abdominal pain, bloating, and gas. Suggest a reason for the ill effects of the supposed starch blocker.

1. List and describe the locations of the major parts of the alimentary canal.

2. List and describe the locations of the accessory organs of the digestive system.

3. Name the four layers of the wall of the alimentary canal.

4. Distinguish between mixing movements and propelling movements.

5. Define peristalsis.

6. Explain the relationship between peristalsis and receptive relaxation.

7. Describe the general effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic impulses on the alimentary canal.

8. Discuss the functions of the mouth and its parts.

9. Distinguish among lingual, palatine, and pharyngeal tonsils.

10. Compare the primary and secondary teeth.

11. Explain how the various types of teeth are adapted to perform specialized functions.

12. Describe the structure of a tooth.

13. Explain how a tooth is anchored in its socket.

14. List and describe the locations of the major salivary glands.

15. Explain how the secretions of the salivary glands differ.

16. Discuss the digestive functions of saliva.

17. Name and locate the three major regions of the pharynx.

18. Describe the mechanism of swallowing.

19. Explain the function of the esophagus.

20. Describe the structure of the stomach.

21. List the enzymes in gastric juice, and explain the function of each enzyme.

22. Explain how gastric secretions are regulated.

23. Describe the mechanism that controls the emptying of the stomach.

24. Describe the enterogastric reflex.

25. Explain the mechanism of vomiting.

26. Describe the locations of the pancreas and the pancreatic duct.

27. List the enzymes in pancreatic juice, and explain the function of each enzyme.

28. Explain how pancreatic secretions are regulated.

29. Describe the structure of the liver.

30. List the major functions of the liver.

31. Describe the composition of bile.

32. Trace the path of bile from a bile canal to the small intestine.

33. Explain how gallstones form.

34. Define cholecystokinin.

35. Explain the functions of bile salts.

36. List and describe the locations of the parts of the small intestine.

37. Name the enzymes of the intestinal mucosa, and explain the function of each enzyme.

38. Explain regulation of the secretions of the small intestine.

39. Describe the functions of the intestinal villi.

40. Summarize how each major type of digestive product is absorbed.

41. Explain control of the movement of the intestinal contents.

42. List and describe the locations of the parts of the large intestine.

43. Explain the general functions of the large intestine.

44. Describe the defecation reflex.

45. What are the effects of altered rates of absorption, due to aging, in the small intestine?

46. How does digestive function change with age?

18. Nutrition and Metabolism

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