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Values increase due to mild vomiting, Cushing syndrome, and hyperventilation. They decrease as a result of hypoventilation, severe diarrhea, Addison disease, and diabetic acidosis.

Phosphatase acid (serum)

Women: 0.01-0.56 Sigma U/mL Men: 0.13-0.63 Sigma U/mL

Values increase in cancer of the prostate gland, hyperparathyroidism, certain liver diseases, myocardial infarction, and pulmonary embolism.

Phosphatase, alkaline (serum)

13-39 U/L

Values increase in hyperparathyroidism (and in other conditions that promote resorption of bone), liver diseases, and pregnancy.

Phosphorus (serum)

3.0-4.5 mg/100 mL

Values increase in kidney diseases, hypoparathyroidism, acromegaly, and hypervitaminosis D. They decrease in hyperparathyroidism.

Platelet count (whole blood)


Values increase in polycythemia and certain anemias. They decrease in acute leukemia and aplastic anemia.

Potassium (serum)

3.5-5.0 mEq/L

Values increase in Addison disease, hypoventilation, and conditions that cause severe cellular destruction. They decrease in diarrhea, vomiting, diabetic acidosis, and chronic kidney disease.

Protein, total (serum)

6.0-8.4 g/100 mL

Values increase in severe dehydration and shock. They decrease in severe malnutrition and hemorrhage.

*These values may vary with hospital, physician, and type of equipment used to make measurements.

*These values may vary with hospital, physician, and type of equipment used to make measurements.

Shier-Butler-Lewis: I Back Matter I Appendix C: Laboratory I I © The McGraw-Hill

Human Anatomy and Tests of Clinical Companies, 2001

Physiology, Ninth Edition Importance

Common Tests Performed on Blood—continued


Normal Values* (adult)

Clinical Significance

Prothrombin time (serum)

12-14 sec (one stage)

Values increase in certain hemorrhagic diseases, liver disease, vitamin K deficiency, and following the use of various drugs.

Red cell count (whole blood)

Men: 4,600,000-6,200,000/mm3 Women: 4,200,000-5,400,000/mm3 Children: 4,500,000-5,100,000/mm3 (varies with age)

Values increase as a result of severe dehydration or diarrhea, and decrease in anemia, leukemia, and following severe hemorrhage.

Red cell distribution width (RDW)

8.5-11.5 microns

Variation in cell width changes with pernicious anemia.

Sedimentation rate, erythrocyte (whole blood)

Men: 1-13 mm/hr Women: 1-20 mm/hr

Values increase in infectious diseases, menstruation, pregnancy, and as a result of severe tissue damage.

Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)

Women: 4-17 U/L Men: 6-24 U/L

Values increase in liver disease, pancreatitis, and acute myocardial infarction.

Sodium (serum)

135-145 mEq/L

Values increase in nephritis and severe dehydration. They decrease in Addison disease, myxedema, kidney disease, and diarrhea.

Thromboplastin time, partial (plasma)

35-45 sec

Values increase in deficiencies of blood factors VIII, IX, and X.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

0.5-5.0 jU/mL

Values increase in hypothyroidism and decrease in hyperthyroidism.

Thyroxine, or T4 (serum)

4-12 jg/100 mL

Values increase in hyperthyroidism and pregnancy. They decrease in hypothyroidism.

Transaminases, or SGOT (serum) 7-27 units/mL Values increase in myocardial infarction, liver disease, and diseases of skeletal muscles.


40-150 mg/100 mL

Values increase in liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism, and pancreatitis. They decrease in malnutrition and hyperthyroidism.

Triiodothyronine, or T3 (serum)

75-195 ng/100 mL

Values increase in hyperthyroidism and decrease in hypothyroidism.

Uric acid (serum)

Men: 2.5-8.0 mg/100 mL Women: 1.5-6.0 mg/100 mL

Values increase in gout, leukemia, pneumonia, toxemia of pregnancy, and as a result of severe tissue damage.

White blood cell count, differential (whole blood)

Neutrophils 54-62% Eosinophils 1-3% Basophils <1% Lymphocytes 25-33% Monocytes 3-7%

Neutrophils increase in bacterial diseases; lymphocytes and monocytes increase in viral diseases; eosinophils increase in collagen diseases, allergies, and in the presence of intestinal parasites.

White blood cell count, total (whole blood)


Values increase in acute infections, acute leukemia, and following menstruation. They decrease in aplastic anemia and as a result of drug toxicity.

Common Tests Performed on Urine


Normal Values* (adult)

Clinical Significance

Acetone and acetoacetate

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