General Function

Specific Function

General Function

Specific Function

Carbohydrate metabolism

Polymerizes glucose to glycogen, breaks down glycogen to glucose, and converts noncarbohydrates to glucose

Protein metabolism

Deaminates amino acids; forms urea; synthesizes plasma proteins; interconverts amino acids

Lipid metabolism

Oxidizes fatty acids; synthesizes lipoproteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol; converts portions of carbohydrate and protein molecules into fats

Storage Blood filtering

Detoxification Secretion

Stores glycogen, vitamins A, D, and

B12, iron, and blood Removes damaged red blood cells and foreign substances by phagocytosis Removes toxins from the blood Secretes bile

Hepatic cells use cholesterol to produce bile salts, and in secreting these salts, they release some cholesterol into the bile. Cholesterol by itself has no special function in bile or in the alimentary canal.

Bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin) are breakdown products of hemoglobin from red blood cells. These pigments are normally excreted in the bile (see chapter 14, pp. 550-551). The yellowish skin, sclerae, and mucous membranes of jaundice result from excess deposition of bile pigments.

Jaundice can have several causes. In obstructive jaundice, bile ducts are blocked. In hepatocellular jaundice, the liver is diseased. In hemolytic jaundice, red blood cells are destroyed too rapidly.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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