Which hormones should be administered to an adult whose anterior pituitary gland has been removed? Why? A patient who has lost a large volume of blood will secrete excess aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. What effect will this increased secretion have on the patient's blood concentrations of sodium and potassium ions? Both growth hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone have been successfully used to promote growth in children with short statures. What is the difference in the ways these hormones produce their effects?

Review Exercises

1. What is an endocrine gland?

2. Define hormone and target cell.

3. Explain how hormones can be grouped on the basis of their chemical composition.

4. Explain how steroid hormones influence cells.

5. Distinguish between the binding site and the activity site of a receptor molecule.

6. Explain how nonsteroid hormones may function through the formation of cAMP.

7. Explain how nonsteroid hormones may function through an increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration.

8. Explain how the cellular response to a hormone operating through a second messenger is amplified.

9. Define prostaglandins, and explain their general function.

10. Describe a negative feedback system.

11. Define releasing hormone, and provide an example of one.

12. Describe the location and structure of the pituitary gland.

13. List the hormones the anterior pituitary gland secretes.

14. Explain how the brain controls pituitary gland activity.

15. Explain how growth hormone produces its effects.

16. List the major factors that affect growth hormone secretion.

17. Summarize the functions of prolactin.

18. Describe regulation of concentrations of circulating thyroid hormones.

19. Explain the control of secretion of ACTH.

20. List the major gonadotropins, and explain the general functions of each.

21. Compare the cellular structures of the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland.

22. Name the hormones associated with the posterior pituitary, and explain their functions.

23. Explain how the release of ADH is regulated.

24. Describe the location and structure of the thyroid gland.

25. Name the hormones the thyroid gland secretes, and list the general functions of each.

26. Define iodine pump.

27. Describe the location and structure of the parathyroid glands.

28. Explain the general functions of parathyroid hormone.

29. Describe mechanisms that regulate the secretion of parathyroid hormone.

30. Distinguish between the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex.

31. List the hormones produced by the adrenal medulla, and describe their general functions.

32. List the steps in the synthesis of adrenal medullary hormones.

33. Name the most important hormones of the adrenal cortex, and describe the general functions of each.

34. Describe the regulation of the secretion of aldosterone.

35. Describe control of cortisol secretion.

36. Describe the location and structure of the pancreas.

37. List the hormones the islets of Langerhans secrete, and describe the general functions of each.

38. Summarize how the secretion of hormones from the pancreas is regulated.

39. Describe the location and general function of the pineal gland.

40. Describe the location and general function of the thymus gland.

41. Distinguish between a stressor and stress.

42. List several factors that cause physical and psychological stress.

43. Describe the general stress syndrome.

44. Which components of the endocrine system change the most as a person ages?

Blood understanding ^Vo rds agglutin-, to glue together:

agglutination—clumping together of red blood cells. bil-, bile: bilirubin—pigment excreted in the bile. -crit, to separate: hematocrit— percentage by volume of cells in a blood sample, determined by separating the cells from the plasma. embol-, stopper: embolism— obstruction in a blood vessel.

erythr-, red: erythrocyte—red blood cell. hem-, blood: hemoglobin—red pigment responsible for the color of blood. hepar-, liver: heparin—

anticoagulant secreted by liver cells. leuko-, white: leukocyte—white blood cell. -lys, to break up: fibrinolysin— protein-splitting enzyme that can digest fibrin. macro-, large: macrophage—

large phagocytic cell. -osis, abnormal condition:

leukocytosis—condition in which white blood cells are overproduced. -poie, make, produce:

erythropoietin—hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells.

poly-, many: polycythemia— condition in which red blood cells are overproduced. -sta, halt, make stand:

hemostasis—arrest of bleeding from damaged blood vessels. thromb-, clot: thrombocyte—

blood platelet involved in the formation of a blood clot.

chapter objectives

After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to

1. Describe the general characteristics of the blood and discuss its major functions.

2. Distinguish among the formed elements of the blood.

3. Explain how blood cell counts are made and how they are used.

4. Discuss the life cycle of a red blood cell.

5. Explain control of red blood cell production.

6. Distinguish among the five types of white blood cells and give the function(s) of each type.

7. List the major components of blood plasma and describe the functions of each.

8. Define hemostasis and explain the mechanisms that help to achieve it.

9. Describe the major steps in hemostasis.

10. Explain how to prevent coagulation.

11. Explain the basis for blood typing.

12. Describe how blood reactions may occur between fetal and maternal tissues.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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