It is important to obtain a good balance of nutrients and enough energy throughout life. Numerous studies have linked caloric restriction to increased longevity—in such species as mice and fruit flies. However, these observations cannot be extrapolated to humans because the experimental laboratory animals, although given very little food, were otherwise kept extremely healthy. Human starvation is usually the consequence of many other problems and is more likely to lead to malnutrition than increased longevity.

H List factors that affect nutrient acquisition.

Describe changes in BMR throughout life.

Clinical Terms Related to Nutrition and Metabolism cachexia (kah-kek'se-ah) State of chronic malnutrition and physical wasting. casein (ka'se-in) Primary protein found in milk. celiac disease (se'le-ak di-zez') Inability to digest or use fats and carbohydrates.

emaciation (e-ma"se-a'shun) Extreme leanness due to tissue wasting.

hyperalimentation (hi"per-al"i-men-ta'shun) Long-term intravenous nutrition. hypercalcemia (hi"per-kal-se'me-ah) Excess calcium in the blood.

hypercalciuria (hi"per-kal-se-u're-ah) Excess excretion of calcium in the urine. hyperglycemia (hi"per-gli-se'me-ah) Excess glucose in the blood.

hyperkalemia (hi"per-kah-le'me-ah) Excess potassium in the blood.

hypernatremia (hi"per-nah-tre'me-ah) Excess sodium in the blood.

hypoalbuminemia (hi"po-al-bu"mi-ne'me-ah) Low level of albumin in the blood. hypoglycemia (hi"po-gli-se'me-ah) Low level of glucose in the blood.

hypokalemia (hi"po-kah-le'me-ah) Low level of potassium in the blood.

hyponatremia (hi"po-nah-tre'me-ah) Low level of sodium in the blood.

isocaloric (i"so-kah-lo'rik) Containing equal amounts of heat energy.

lipogenesis (lip"o-jen'e-sis) The formation of fat. nyctalopia (nik"tah-lo'pe-ah) Night blindness. polyphagia (pol"e-fa'je-ah) Overeating. proteinuria (pro"te-i-nu're-ah) Protein in the urine.

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