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Extracellular fluid

Intracellular fluid

Figure

Of the 40 liters of water in the body of an average adult male, about two-thirds is intracellular, and one-third is extracellular.

Figure

Of the 40 liters of water in the body of an average adult male, about two-thirds is intracellular, and one-third is extracellular.

U How are fluid balance and electrolyte balance interdependent?

^9 Describe the normal distribution of water within the body.

^9 Which electrolytes are in higher concentrations in extracellular fluids? In intracellular fluid?

□ How does the concentration of protein vary in the various body fluids?

Movement of Fluid Between Compartments

Two major factors regulate the movement of water and electrolytes from one fluid compartment to another: hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure. For example, as explained in chapter 15 (p. 606), fluid leaves the plasma at the arteriolar ends of capillaries and enters the interstitial spaces because of the net outward force of hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure). Fluid returns to the plasma from the interstitial spaces at the venular ends of capillaries because of the net inward force of colloid osmotic pressure. Likewise, as mentioned in chapter 16 (p. 654), fluid leaves the interstitial spaces and enters the lymph capillaries due to the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid. As a result of the circulation of lymph, interstitial fluid returns to the plasma.

Because hydrostatic pressure within the cells and surrounding interstitial fluid is ordinarily equal and remains stable, any net fluid movement that occurs is likely to be the result of changes in osmotic pressure (fig. 21.4).

Total body water

Total body water

Figure

Cell membranes separate fluid in the intracellular compartment from fluid in the extracellular compartment. Approximately two-thirds of the water in the body is inside cells.

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