Substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+)
Carbonic acid, hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, phosphoric acid
Substance that releases ions that can combine with hydrogen ions
Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate
Substance formed by the reaction between an acid and a base
Sodium chloride, aluminum chloride, magnesium sulfate
(Note: Some ions, such as OH- contain two or more atoms. However, such a group usually behaves like a single atom and remains unchanged during a chemical reaction.)
Acids and bases can react to form water and electrolytes called salts. For example, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide react to form water and sodium chloride:
Table 2.4 summarizes the three types of electrolytes.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.