Substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+)

Carbonic acid, hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, phosphoric acid


Substance that releases ions that can combine with hydrogen ions

Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate


Substance formed by the reaction between an acid and a base

Sodium chloride, aluminum chloride, magnesium sulfate

(Note: Some ions, such as OH- contain two or more atoms. However, such a group usually behaves like a single atom and remains unchanged during a chemical reaction.)

Acids and bases can react to form water and electrolytes called salts. For example, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide react to form water and sodium chloride:

Table 2.4 summarizes the three types of electrolytes.

Basic (alkaline)



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