Info

Characteristic

Examples

Acid

Substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+)

Carbonic acid, hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, phosphoric acid

Base

Substance that releases ions that can combine with hydrogen ions

Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate

Salt

Substance formed by the reaction between an acid and a base

Sodium chloride, aluminum chloride, magnesium sulfate

(Note: Some ions, such as OH- contain two or more atoms. However, such a group usually behaves like a single atom and remains unchanged during a chemical reaction.)

Acids and bases can react to form water and electrolytes called salts. For example, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide react to form water and sodium chloride:

Table 2.4 summarizes the three types of electrolytes.

Basic (alkaline)

Neutral

Acidic

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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