/ contraction

Movement of food


(a) Mixing movements occur when small segments of the muscular wall of the alimentary canal rhythmically contract. (b) Peristaltic waves move the contents along the canal.

Hard palate

Soft palate -


Palatine tonsils —


Vestibule Lip-


The mouth is adapted for ingesting food and preparing it for digestion.

texture of foods. Their normal reddish color is due to the many blood vessels near their surfaces. The external borders of the lips mark the boundaries between the skin of the face and the mucous membrane that lines the alimentary canal.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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