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Movement of food

Figure

(a) Mixing movements occur when small segments of the muscular wall of the alimentary canal rhythmically contract. (b) Peristaltic waves move the contents along the canal.

Hard palate

Soft palate -

Uvula-

Palatine tonsils —

Tongue

Vestibule Lip-

Figure

The mouth is adapted for ingesting food and preparing it for digestion.

texture of foods. Their normal reddish color is due to the many blood vessels near their surfaces. The external borders of the lips mark the boundaries between the skin of the face and the mucous membrane that lines the alimentary canal.

Essentials of Human Physiology

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