Shier-Butler-Lewis: I Front Matter I View from the Top I I © The McGraw-Hill
Human Anatomy and Companies, 2001
Physiology, Ninth Edition
Complete Your Journey with a focus on the Chapter Summary. Use this outline for review and as a tool for organizing your thoughts.
Your Route to Success in the Health Professions requires more than the memorization of facts. The Critical Thinking Questions at the end of each chapter apply main concepts to clinical or research situations and take you beyond memorization to utilization of knowledge.
of the major ideas in the narrative with the end-of-chapter review exercises. Follow these key ideas in the sequence in which they are presented.
Introduction le tissue are skeletal, smooth, and of a Skeletal Muscle
Linkages form be octin filam.n
Structure (page 298
1. Connective tissue coverings b and groups of c ,ttuithaf;;t:ndscos.';;in;;';',oerkbood;onn'c"-
1 Tliicisiosiriii. b. £
causes striations. (I bands, Z lines, A bands, H zone e. Cross-bridges of myosin filaments form linkages with g Transverse tubules extend from the cell membrane g Transverse tubules extend from the cell membrane b. When thick and ■
The Sliding Filament a The :
•tIiotions, is the functional
ThiScZIocts iMMetEE£!:tj=ssc!e fibeersliteoscoro~tside c. One moror neuron andthe muscle fibers associated with it constitute a motor unit.
d. In response to a neree impulse, the end of a motor
Stimulus for contraction a Muscle fiber is usually stimulated by acetylcholine
' MSfon^^ -S^lhneto means of the transverse tubules. Excitation contraction coupling le impulse signals
1. Cross-bridge cycling.
a. AStmy;di;ucl-n-b;SeetCnaniarennttoTa^neIyi„nsbnn,d;,nl aanl,,honnr5ln^s.eit.heIua,c!,i.nrdnoIcnor;bi^cet:;y,ílame'n1ter
" ;í1io,!u!sEW;„,oíí'T'0 ss:,,e5so|e„ysE' th^provides
2. Relaxation a. dAecceotymlcphoosleidnebyreamceatiynlicnhgoilnintehsetesryansae,ppsereivsernatpiindgly b. Tansmurted back rntoXtehSe1sareciopa^sCiin1i!Irie0t'iicSui!1aem.
c. Susf bmak and do not reform-the
3. Energy sources for contraction c. Active muscles depend upon cellular respiration for energy.
4. Oxygen supply and cellular respiration a Wísrr,ba,rob5irat:ín,iteo;povATPIo;yiíT?,
t. •xiIcisi, oxygen is sufficient to release calcium ions.
amount of oxygen needed to convert Muscle fatigue a. MSKigrSs^^
c îoHïï^ÊilHîlSn'aSseïab'ffaïto supply oxygen and nutrients to muscles. Heat production a. Muscles represent an impc.ant sou.ae oM;1.,.
1 wey ;0OrIUthy1;xe;r!n:en|,ns;aytbe£e•a;:0I;e:«ve event?
3. What steps might be taken to minimioe atrophy of skeletal muscles in patients who are confined to bed for prolonged times?
•,h••cdI0ïb1•tdmmu'lOän.pa-<tv•ly or con*Ioctinn thim with
1. List the three types of muscle tissue.
2. Distinguish between a tendon and an aponeurosis.
3. Describe the connective tissue coverings of a skeletal muscle.
5 ^ssorupntfioOfoaf easr* fiber and wififii moor usiä1^
i. number of fibers
Explain the function of a neurotransmitter substance. Describe the major events that occur when a muscle fiber
11. Describe how oxygen is supplied to skeletal muscles.
12. Describe how an oxygen debt may develop.
13. Explain how muscles may become fatigued and how a person's physical condition may affect tolerance to
14. Explain how the actions of skeletal muscles affect maintenance of body temperature.
15. Define threshold stimulus.
16. Explain all-or-none response.
17. Describe the staircase effect.
19. Explain hew a skeletal muscle can be stimulated to
20. Distinguish between a tetanic contraction and muscle contractions, and eexnpcloainncehnotwriceaacnhd iescucesendtriicn body
22. Distinguish between fast-contracting and slow-
23. Compare the structures of smooth and skeletal muscle
24. Distinguish between multiunit and visceral smooth
25. Define peristalsis and explain its function.
26. Compare the characteristics of smooth and skeletal
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.