Shier-Butler-Lewis: I Front Matter I View from the Top I I © The McGraw-Hill

Human Anatomy and Companies, 2001

Physiology, Ninth Edition

Complete Your Journey with a focus on the Chapter Summary. Use this outline for review and as a tool for organizing your thoughts.

Your Route to Success in the Health Professions requires more than the memorization of facts. The Critical Thinking Questions at the end of each chapter apply main concepts to clinical or research situations and take you beyond memorization to utilization of knowledge.

Check Your


of the major ideas in the narrative with the end-of-chapter review exercises. Follow these key ideas in the sequence in which they are presented.

chapter summary

Introduction le tissue are skeletal, smooth, and of a Skeletal Muscle

Linkages form be octin filam.n

Structure (page 298


1. Connective tissue coverings b and groups of c ,ttuithaf;;t:ndscos.';;in;;';',oerkbood;onn'c"-

1 Tliicisiosiriii. b. £

causes striations. (I bands, Z lines, A bands, H zone e. Cross-bridges of myosin filaments form linkages with g Transverse tubules extend from the cell membrane g Transverse tubules extend from the cell membrane b. When thick and ■

or junction

The Sliding Filament a The :

or junction

•tIiotions, is the functional

ThiScZIocts iMMetEE£!:tj=ssc!e fibeersliteoscoro~tside c. One moror neuron andthe muscle fibers associated with it constitute a motor unit.

d. In response to a neree impulse, the end of a motor

Stimulus for contraction a Muscle fiber is usually stimulated by acetylcholine

' MSfon^^ -S^lhneto means of the transverse tubules. Excitation contraction coupling le impulse signals

(page 306)

í:tiíínd,Iyo:i:sInsstít: S=,ai;:;d,:■mr:s-ersbnt.o,

1. Cross-bridge cycling.

a. AStmy;di;ucl-n-b;SeetCnaniarennttoTa^neIyi„nsbnn,d;,nl aanl,,honnr5ln^s.eit.heIua,c!,i.nrdnoIcnor;bi^cet:;y,ílame'n1ter

" ;í1io,!u!sEW;„,oíí'T'0 ss:,,e5so|e„ysE' th^provides

2. Relaxation a. dAecceotymlcphoosleidnebyreamceatiynlicnhgoilnintehsetesryansae,ppsereivsernatpiindgly b. Tansmurted back rntoXtehSe1sareciopa^sCiin1i!Irie0t'iicSui!1aem.

c. Susf bmak and do not reform-the

3. Energy sources for contraction c. Active muscles depend upon cellular respiration for energy.

4. Oxygen supply and cellular respiration a Wísrr,ba,rob5irat:ín,iteo;povATPIo;yiíT?,

:.M.i;oikbIryocb!°dlI:tosrI::o::;xyyl;nn'rom temporarily.

5. Oxygendebt


t. •xiIcisi, oxygen is sufficient to release calcium ions.

amount of oxygen needed to convert Muscle fatigue a. MSKigrSs^^

c îoHïï^ÊilHîlSn'aSseïab'ffaïto supply oxygen and nutrients to muscles. Heat production a. Muscles represent an impc.ant oM;1.,.

Critical t

: Questions

1 wey ;0OrIUthy1;xe;r!n:en|,ns;aytbe£e•a;:0I;e:«ve event?

2. OnlCl0WtinnfnC.hf1b;:.h,S„nWeOzmn|nom:yu|oí•n|rii;arycíontrol

í"xurclee,oo"hheelppc0';ni,cr0!otol1■iSshpor:bdeburst'.||thened "

3. What steps might be taken to minimioe atrophy of skeletal muscles in patients who are confined to bed for prolonged times?

•,h••cdI0ïb1•tdmmu'lOä<tv•ly or con*Ioctinn thim with

Review Exercises

Part A

1. List the three types of muscle tissue.

2. Distinguish between a tendon and an aponeurosis.

3. Describe the connective tissue coverings of a skeletal muscle.

5 ^ssorupntfioOfoaf easr* fiber and wififii moor usiä1^

i. number of fibers

Explain the function of a neurotransmitter substance. Describe the major events that occur when a muscle fiber

11. Describe how oxygen is supplied to skeletal muscles.

12. Describe how an oxygen debt may develop.

13. Explain how muscles may become fatigued and how a person's physical condition may affect tolerance to

14. Explain how the actions of skeletal muscles affect maintenance of body temperature.

15. Define threshold stimulus.

16. Explain all-or-none response.

17. Describe the staircase effect.

19. Explain hew a skeletal muscle can be stimulated to

20. Distinguish between a tetanic contraction and muscle contractions, and eexnpcloainncehnotwriceaacnhd iescucesendtriicn body

22. Distinguish between fast-contracting and slow-

23. Compare the structures of smooth and skeletal muscle

24. Distinguish between multiunit and visceral smooth

25. Define peristalsis and explain its function.

26. Compare the characteristics of smooth and skeletal

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

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