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Sebaceous glands Eccrine sweat glands

Keep hair soft, pliable, waterproof Lower body temperature

Sebaceous glands Eccrine sweat glands

Apocrine sweat glands

Ceruminous glands Mammary glands

Groups of specialized epithelial cells Abundant sweat glands with odorless secretion

Less numerous sweat glands with secretions that develop odors Modified sweat glands Modified sweat glands

Keep hair soft, pliable, waterproof Lower body temperature

Wet skin during pain, fear, emotional upset, and sexual arousal Secrete earwax Secrete milk

Near or connected to hair follicles, everywhere but on palms and soles Originate in deep dermis or subcutaneous layer and open to surface on forehead, neck, and back Near hair follicles in armpit, groin, around nipples

External ear canal Breasts

Hair shaft

Epidermis -

Epidermis -


Hair follicle


Dermal papilla


Hair follicle sweat gland

Apocrine sweat gland

Figure 6.10

Note the difference in location of the ducts of the eccrine and apocrine sweat glands.

Superficial portion of dermis




Duct of eccrine sweat gland

Dermal papilla

Light micrograph of the epidermis showing the duct of an eccrine sweat gland (30x).

How do the functions of eccrine sweat glands and apocrine sweat glands differ?

and the female mammary glands that secrete milk (see chapter 22, page 920). Table 6.3 summarizes skin glands.

D Explain how a hair forms. ^9 What causes gooseflesh?

^9 What is the function of the sebaceous glands?

H How does the composition of a fingernail differ from that of a hair?

B Describe the locations of the sweat glands.

Regulation of Body Temperature

The regulation of body temperature is vitally important because even slight shifts can disrupt the rates of metabolic reactions. Normally, the temperature of deeper body parts remains close to a set point of 37° C (98.6° F). The maintenance of a stable temperature requires that the amount of heat the body loses be balanced by the amount it produces. The skin plays a key role in the homeostatic mechanism that regulates body temperature.

OO Reconnect with chapter 1, Homeostasis, page 6.

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