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Figure 15.2

Anterior view of a human heart.

Figure 15.2

Anterior view of a human heart.

Figure

The cardiovascular system transports blood between the body cells and organs such as the lungs, intestines, and kidneys that communicate with the external environment.

posterior of the sternum, the vertebral column, and the large blood vessels emerging from the heart (see figs. 1.9, 15.4 and reference plates 56 and 57). Between the parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium is a space, the pericardial cavity, that contains a small volume of serous fluid that the pericardial membranes secrete. This fluid reduces friction between the pericardial membranes as the heart moves within them.

Base of heart

Base of heart

Sternum

Heart

Apex of heart

Sternum

Heart

Apex of heart

In pericarditis, inflammation of the pericardium due to viral or bacterial infection produces adhesions that attach the layers of the pericardium. This condition is very painful and interferes with heart movements.

Figure

The heart is located posterior to the sternum, where it lies upon the diaphragm.

Left lung

Right lung

Left lung

Right lung

Where Image Heart Plumnary Trunk

Pulmonary trunk

Left auricle

Fibrous pericardium

Cut edge of parietal pericardium

Heart (covered by visceral pericardium)

Left ventricle

Interventricular sulcus

Right ventricle

Pericardial cavity

Figure 15.4

The heart is within the mediastinum and is enclosed by a layered pericardium.

Right ventricle

Pericardial cavity

Figure 15.4

The heart is within the mediastinum and is enclosed by a layered pericardium.

Pulmonary trunk

Left auricle

Fibrous pericardium

Cut edge of parietal pericardium

Heart (covered by visceral pericardium)

Left ventricle

Interventricular sulcus

O Where is the heart located?

^9 Where would you listen to hear the apical heartbeat?

^9 Distinguish between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium.

D What is the function of the fluid in the pericardial cavity?

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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