Cell membrane

Membrane mainly composed of protein and lipid molecules

Maintains integrity of the cell, controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell, and provides for signal transduction

Endoplasmic reticulum

Complex of connected, membrane-bound sacs, canals, and vesicles

Transports materials within the cell, provides attachment for ribosomes, and synthesizes lipids


Particles composed of protein and RNA molecules

Synthesize proteins

Golgi apparatus

Group of flattened, membranous sacs

Packages and modifies protein molecules for transport and secretion


Membranous sacs with inner partitions

Release energy from food molecules and transform energy into usable form


Membranous sacs

Contain enzymes capable of digesting worn cellular parts or substances that enter cells


Membranous vesicles

Contain enzymes called peroxidases, important in the breakdown of many organic molecules


Nonmembranous structure composed of two rodlike centrioles

Helps distribute chromosomes to new cells during cell division and initiates formation of cilia


Motile projections attached to basal bodies beneath the cell membrane

Propel fluids over cellular surface


Motile projections attached to basal bodies beneath the cell membrane

Enable sperm cells to move


Membranous sacs

Contain substances that recently entered the cell and store and transport newly synthesized molecules

Microfilaments and microtubules

Thin rods and tubules

Support cytoplasm and help move substances and organelles within the cytoplasm

Nuclear envelope

Porous double membrane that separates the nuclear contents from the cytoplasm

Maintains the integrity of the nucleus and controls the passage of materials between the nucleus and cytoplasm


Dense, nonmembranous body composed of protein and RNA molecules

Site of ribosome formation


Fibers composed of protein and DNA molecules

Contains cellular information for synthesizing proteins

Permeable membrane

QSugar molecule OWater molecule

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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