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Mandible (1)

Forms lower jaw

Body, ramus, mandibular condyle, coronoid process, alveolar process, mandibular foramen, mental foramen

Carotid canal

(fig. 7.22) Foramen lacerum

Foramen ovale

(fig. 7.22) Foramen rotundum

(fig. 7.26) Foramen spinosum

(fig. 7.26) Greater palatine foramen (fig. 7.22) Hypoglossal canal

(fig. 7.29) Incisive foramen

(fig. 7.22) Inferior orbital fissure

(fig. 7.20) Infraorbital foramen

(fig. 7.20) Internal acoustic meatus (fig. 7.26) Jugular foramen

(fig. 7.26) Mandibular foramen

(fig. 7.31) Mental foramen

(fig. 7.31) Optic canal (fig. 7.20) Stylomastoid foramen (fig. 7.22) Superior orbital fissure (fig. 7.20) Supraorbital foramen (fig. 7.19)

Inferior surface of the temporal bone

Floor of cranial cavity between temporal and sphenoid bones Base of skull in occipital bone

Floor of cranial cavity in sphenoid bone

Floor of cranial cavity in sphenoid bone

Floor of cranial cavity in sphenoid bone

Posterior portion of hard palate in palatine bone

Near margin of foramen magnum in occipital bone

Anterior portion of hard palate

Floor of the orbit

Below the orbit in maxillary bone

Floor of cranial cavity in temporal bone

Base of the skull between temporal and occipital bones Inner surface of ramus of mandible

Near point of jaw in mandible

Posterior portion of orbit in sphenoid bone

Between styloid and mastoid processes

Lateral wall of orbit

Upper margin or orbit in frontal bone

Internal carotid artery, veins, and nerves

Branch of pharyngeal artery (in life, opening is largely covered by fibrocartilage) Nerve fibers passing between the brain and spinal cord as it exits from the base of the brain, also certain arteries

Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve and veins

Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve

Middle meningeal blood vessels and branch of mandibular nerve Palatine blood vessels and nerves

Hypoglossal nerve

Nasopalatine nerves, openings of vomeronasal organ

Maxillary nerve and blood vessels

Infraorbital blood vessels and nerves

Branches of facial and vestibulocochlear nerves, and blood vessels Glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves, and blood vessels Inferior alveolar blood vessels and nerves

Mental nerve and blood vessels

Optic nerve and ophthalmic artery

Facial nerve and blood vessels

Oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves, and ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve Supraorbital blood vessels and nerves

Anterior fontanel

Parietal bone

Posterior fontanel Occipital bone

Mastoid fontanel

(posterolateral fontanel)

Temporal bone

Sphenoid fontanel (anterolateral fontanel)

Anterior fontanel

Parietal bone

Posterior fontanel Occipital bone

Mastoid fontanel

(posterolateral fontanel)

Temporal bone

Accessory Parietal Sutures

Coronal suture

Frontal bone Sphenoid bone Nasal bone

Maxilla

Zygomatic bone Mandible

■ Frontal suture (metopic suture) Frontal bone

Coronal suture

Frontal bone Sphenoid bone Nasal bone

Maxilla

Zygomatic bone Mandible

Anterior fontanel

Posterior fontanel

Figure 7.33

{a) Lateral view and {b) superior view of the newborn skull.

H Locate and name each of the bones of the cranium. Locate and name each of the facial bones. Explain how an adult skull differs from that of an infant.

Anterior fontanel

Posterior fontanel

Superior Sagittal Sinus Coronal Suture

Sagittal suture

■ Frontal suture (metopic suture) Frontal bone

Sagittal suture

Vertebral Column

The vertebral column extends from the skull to the pelvis and forms the vertical axis of the skeleton (fig. 7.34). It is composed of many bony parts called vertebrae (ver'tei-bre) that are separated by masses of fibro-cartilage called intervertebral disks and are connected to one another by ligaments. The vertebral column

supports the head and the trunk of the body, yet is flexible enough to permit movements, such as bending forward, backward, or to the side, and turning or rotating on the central axis. It also protects the spinal cord, which passes through a vertebral canal formed by openings in the vertebrae.

An infant has thirty-three separate bones in the vertebral column. Five of these bones eventually fuse to form the sacrum, and four others join to become the coccyx. As a result, an adult vertebral column has twenty-six bones.

Normally, the vertebral column has four curvatures, which give it a degree of resiliency. The names of the curves correspond to the regions in which they occur, as shown in figure 7.34. The thoracic and pelvic curvatures

Cervical— curvature

Thoracic — curvature

Lumbar — curvature

Pelvic — curvature

Cervical— curvature

Thoracic — curvature

Lumbar — curvature

Pelvic — curvature

Vertebra prominens

Rib facet

Intervertebral discs

Intervertebral foramina

Coccyx

Vertebra prominens

Rib facet

Intervertebral discs

Intervertebral foramina

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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