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galactose (gah-lak'tois) A monosaccharide component of the disaccharide lactose. p. 719

gallbladder (gawl'blad-er) Saclike organ associated with the liver that stores and concentrates bile. p. 712 gamete (gam'eit) A sex cell; either an egg cell or a sperm cell. p. 915 ganglion (gang'gle-on) A mass of neuron cell bodies, usually outside the central nervous system (pl., ganglia). p. 428 gastric gland (gas'trik gland) Gland within the stomach wall that secretes gastric juice. p. 700

gastric juice (gas'trik joos) Secretion of the gastric glands within the stomach. p. 700

gastric lipase (gas'trik ll'pas) Fat-splitting enzyme in gastric juice. p. 703 gastrin (gas'trin) Hormone secreted by the stomach lining that stimulates secretion of gastric juice. p. 704 gastrula (gas'troo-lah) Embryonic stage following the blastula; cells differentiate into three layers: the endoderm, the mesoderm, and the ectoderm. p. 946 gene (jen) Portion of a DNA molecule that encodes the information to synthesize a protein, a control sequence, or tRNA or rRNA. The unit of inheritance. p. 122 genetic code (je-net'ik kod) Information for synthesizing proteins that is encoded in the nucleotide sequence of DNA molecules. p. 122 genetic heterogeneity (jei-net'ik het"er-o-je-ne'i-te) Different genotypes that have identical phenotypes. p. 986 genetics (je-net'iks) The study of heredity. p. 978

genital (jen'i-tal) Pertaining to the genitalia (internal and external organs of reproduction). p. 24 genome (jeh'nom) All of the DNA in a cell of an organism. p. 122 genotype (je'no-tlp) The combination of genes present within a zygote or within the cells of an individual. p. 983 glans penis (glanz pe'nis) Enlarged mass of corpus spongiosum at the end of the penis; may be covered by the foreskin. p. 893 gliding joint (glld'eng joint) Two bones with nearly flat surfaces joined together. p. 276 globin (glo'bin) The protein portion of a hemoglobin molecule. p. 807 globulin (glob'u-lin) A type of protein in blood plasma. p. 560 glomerular capsule (glo-mer'u-lar kap'suil) Proximal portion of a renal tubule that encloses the glomerulus of a nephron; Bowman's capsule. p. 825 glomerular filtrate (glo-mer'u-lar fil'trat) Liquid that passes out of the glomerular capillaries in the kidney into the glomerular capsule. p. 832 glomerular filtration (glo-mer'u-lar fil-

tra'shun) Process where blood pressure forces liquid through the glomerular capillaries in the kidney into the glomerular capsule. p. 831 glomerulus (glo-mer'u-lus) A capillary tuft located within the glomerular capsule of a nephron. p. 825 glottis (glot'is) Slitlike opening between the true vocal folds or vocal cords. p. 783 glucagon (gloo'kah-gon) Hormone secreted by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans that releases glucose from glycogen. p. 530 glucocorticoid (gloo"ko-kor'ti-koid) Any one of a group of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex that influences carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. p. 529

gluconeogenesis (gloo"ko-ne"o-jen'ei-sis) Synthesis of glucose from noncarbo-hydrates such as amino acids. p. 531

glucose (gloo'kos) A monosaccharide in the blood that is the primary source of cellular energy. p. 50 glucosuria (gloo'ko-sur'e-ah) Presence of glucose in urine. p. 835 gluteal (gloo'te-al) Pertaining to the buttocks. p. 24

glycerol (glis'er-ol) An organic compound that is a building block for fat molecules. p. 51

glycogen (gli'ko-jen) A polysaccharide that stores glucose in the liver and muscles. p. 50

glycolysis (gli-kol'i-sis) The conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid during cellular respiration. p. 114 glycoprotein (gli"ko-pro'te-in) A compound composed of a carbohydrate combined with a protein. p. 505 goblet cell (gob'let sel) An epithelial cell that is specialized to secrete mucus. p. 144 goiter (goi'ter) An enlarged thyroid gland. p. 522

Golgi apparatus (gol'je ap"ah-ra'tus) An organelle that prepares cellular products for secretion. p. 74 Golgi tendon organ (gol"je ten'dun or'gan) Sensory receptors in tendons close to muscle attachments that are involved in reflexes that help maintain posture. p. 461 gomphosis (gom-fo'sis) Type of joint in which a cone-shaped process is fastened in a bony socket. p. 2 72 gonad (go'nad) A sex cell-producing organ;

an ovary or testis. p. 898 gonadotropin (go-nad"o-trop'in) A hormone that stimulates activity in the gonads. p. 518

G protein (g pro'ten) Organic compound which activates an enzyme that is bound to the cell membrane. p. 508 granulocyte (gran'u-lo-slt) A leukocyte that contains granules in its cytoplasm. p. 553 gray matter (gra mat'er) Region of the central nervous system that generally lacks myelin and thus appears gray. p. 402 gray ramus (gra ra'mus) A short nerve containing postganglionic axons returning to a spinal nerve. p. 439 groin (groin) Region of the body between the abdomen and thighs. p. 24 growth (groth) Process by which a structure enlarges. p. 5 growth hormone (groth hor'mon) A hormone released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that promotes the growth of the organism; GH or somatotropin. p. 204 gubernaculum (goo"ber'nak'u-lum) A structure that guides another structure. p. 881

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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