Hfg

GABA, 381, 383t, 384t, 387 Gage, Phineas, 395, 395 Gagging, 813 Galactose, 50, 739, 739 Gallbladder, 16, 33, 34, 35, 532, 710, 712-14, 714, 716, 730,1013 disorders of, 715 Gallium-67, 43 Gallstones, 714-15, 714, 730 Gamete intrafallopian transfer, 915 Gamma radiation, 41, 46, 58 Ganciclovir, 1000 Ganglia, 369, 428, 438 Ganglion cells, 488 Gap junction, 70-71, 72t, 74, 158,

315, 371-72, 595 Gas exchange across capillaries, 605 alveolar, 804-7 between mother and embryo, 947 disorders that impair,

808-9, 809 in lungs, 588, 588, 620, 621, 789-90, 789 Gas transport, in blood, 807-12 Gastrectomy, 730 Gastric artery, 622, 624 Gastric bypass, 749 Gastric glands, 700, 702, 703, 703 Gastric juice, 660, 700, 703-4,

703t, 704 Gastric lavage, 874 Gastric lipase, 703 Gastric pits, 700, 702, 703 Gastric vein, 633, 634 Gastrin, 522, 703-4, 704, 716t Gastritis, 701

Gastrocnemius muscle, 288, 319,

341, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 347t, 348, 360, 361, 1020 Gastrocolic reflex, 726 Gastroenteric reflex, 723 Gastroenterology, 24 Gastroileal reflex, 723 Gastrostomy, 730 Gastrula, 946 Gastrulation, 946 Gated ion channels, 374, 374, 376 Gaucher disease, 945t, 997 Gelsinger, Jesse, 998-99, 999 Gender, effect on phenotype, 990 Gene(s), 56, 121, 978-83, 979 environmental effects on, 979 role at molecular and cellular levels, 981 where genes function, 981 Gene amplification, 132, 132t Gene expression, 985-86 General interpretative area, 415, 417, 419

General stress syndrome, 536, 538t Gene therapy, 175, 570, 581, 669, 993-1000 against cancer, 997-98 concerns about, 996t heritable, 993-94 nonheritable, 994 requirements for clinical trials of, 996t successes and setbacks, 998-99, 998, 999

tools and targets of, 996-1000, 997 Genetic code, 121-23, 126t, 127, 128, 128t Genetic heterogeneity, 986 Genetic information, 121-22

changes in, 130-34 Genetics, 978 Genetic test for cancer, 845, 925 preimplantation, 944-45, 944, 945t Genicular artery, deep, 629, 630 Genital herpes, 931t Genital region, 24, 25 Genital tubercle, 958 Genital warts, 669, 931t Genome, 979 Genomic imprinting, 990 Genomics, 979, 981 Genotype, 983 Geophagy, 763

George III (King of England), 555 Geriatrics, 24 Germinal center, 655, 656 Germinal mutation, 925 Germ layers, primary, 946-47,

947, 948 Gerontology, 24 Gestation, 931 GI camera, 688 Gigantism, 517

pituitary, 204 Gingivitis, 693 Ginkgo biloba, 765 Gland(s), 148. See also specific glands alveolar, 148, 149, 149t compound, 148, 149, 149t endocrine, 148 exocrine, 148, 149, 149t, 504, 505

holocrine, 148, 150, 150t merocrine, 148, 150, 150t simple, 148, 149, 149t of skin, 179-81, 181, 181t tubular, 148, 149, 149t Gland cells, 101 Glandular epithelium, 148-49,

149, 149t, 150, 169 Glans, of clitoris, 907 Glans penis, 882, 893, 893, 958 Glaucoma, 497 Glenohumeral ligament,

279-83, 282 Glenoid cavity, 233, 235, 279,

282, 283 Glenoid labrum, 282, 283 Gliadin, 744

Gliding joint, 276, 277, 278t Glioma, 997, 997 Globin, 550, 554, 807 Globular proteins, 54, 69, 72, 112 Globulins, 560, 561, 561t, 1030 alpha, 521, 560, 561t, 564 beta, 560, 561t gamma, 560, 561t, 570, 666, 671 Globus pallidus, 418, 421 Glomerular capsule, 825, 826, 828, 831, 832, 835, 837, 838, 843t Glomerular filtrate, 832, 832, 832t,

834, 835, 837, 838 Glomerular filtration, 830-32, 832 filtration pressure, 833

Glomerular filtration rate, 833-34, 833, 834, 849 control of, 834-35, 835 Glomerulonephritis, 675t, 824,

Glossitis, 730

Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), 429,

431, 433t, 440, 444, 467 Glottis, 783-84, 785 Glucagon, 8, 507t, 511-12,

Glucocorticoids, 531, 539,

739, 957 Glucokinase, 531 Gluconeogenesis, 529, 531, 740 Glucophage, 534 Glucose, 50, 51, 60, 739, 739

531-32, 533, 533t, 534, 536, 537, 539, 562, 633, 710, 766, 832t, 1030

cerebrospinal fluid, 117 glomerular filtrate, 832t reabsorption in renal tubule, 836 renal plasma threshold, 836 uptake by cells, 531, 533 urine, 832t, 836, 843, 1033 Glucose-tolerance test, 534 Glucosuria, 875 Glutamate, 381, 383t, 467 Gluteal artery, 899 inferior, 628, 629 superior, 628, 629 Gluteal gait, 338 Gluteal muscles, 436 Gluteal nerve inferior, 342t, 436, 439 superior, 342t, 436, 439 Gluteal region, 24, 25 Gluteal tubercle, 244 Gluteal vein, 637, 899 Gluten, 722

Gluteus maximus muscle, 337-38, 337, 340, 341, 342t, 899, 1013,1016,1019 Gluteus medius muscle, 37, 319,

337-38, 340, 341, 342t Gluteus minimus muscle, 337-38,

340, 342t Glycerol, 51, 52, 57t, 111 Glycine, 381

Glycogen, 50, 110, 120, 309, 310, 739-40 liver, 529, 531-32, 711,

712t, 740 muscle, 740 Glycogenesis, 740, 740 Glycogenolysis, 530, 740 Glycolipids, 71

Glycolysis, 114-17, 115, 116, 121,

309, 739, 1034, 1035 Glycoproteins, 54, 70, 74, 76,

505, 507t Glycosuria, 534, 836 GM1 ganglioside, 411 Goblet cells, 144-45, 145, 149t,

169, 690, 700, 702, 703, 703, 718, 720, 725, 726, 780, 784, 789 Goiter, 516, 522t, 523

85t, 92, 92 Golgi tendon organs, 461-62,

462, 462t Gomphosis, 272, 273, 278t Gonadal artery, 623, 624, 625t, 631 Gonadal vein, 635, 638 Gonadotropes, 515 Gonadotropin(s), 517, 534-35, 896

hyposecretion of, 921 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, 507t, 516, 518, 896, 897, 898, 908-9, 911 Gonorrhea, 921, 931t Gooseflesh, 180 Gout, 271, 275, 290t, 758t, 842 gp120, 678 G1 phase, 94, 94 G2 phase, 94, 94 G proteins, 508-9, 509, 510t Graafian follicle, 901, 902 Gracilis muscle, 34, 36, 37, 319,

337-38, 339, 341, 342, 342t, 346, 1018 Graft-versus-host disease, 547,

673, 675 Granulations, 185 Granulation tissue, 206 Granulocytes, 549, 553, 559, 560t Granulosa cells, 901, 902, 909 Graves disease, 522t, 675t Gray commissure, 402, 403 Gray hair, 19, 177, 187, 967 Gray matter, 367, 396, 402, 403,

404, 1010 Gray rami, 439, 442 Greater omentum, 33, 717, 717,

1006, 1024 Greater pelvis, 240-42 Greater sciatic notch, 240, 241 Greater trochanter, 244, 244,

286, 359 Greenstick fracture, 206 Ground substance, 151, 154, 156 Growth, 941

as characteristic of life, 5t Growth factors, 99-100, 185, 581 Growth hormone, 507t, 513, 515, 516, 517, 517, 520t, 536-37 bovine, 517 deficiency of, 204 human, 204, 517 misuse by athletes, 511 Growth hormone-releasing hormone, 507t, 515, 516 Growth spurt, 966-67 Guanine, 122, 124, 126t, 127, 1039 Gubernaculum, 881, 883 Guevedoces, 897 Gums, 693

Gustatory cortex, 467-68 Gynecology, 24

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