eccentric contraction (ek-sen'trik kon-trak'shun) Force within a muscle less than that required to lift or move an object. p. 313

eccrine gland (ek'rin gland) Sweat gland that maintains body temperature. p. 179 ECG Electrocardiogram; EKG. p. 596 ectoderm (ek'to-derm) The outermost primary germ layer. p. 946 edema (e-de'mah) Accumulation of fluid within the tissue spaces. p. 654 effector (ei-fek'tor) A muscle or gland that responds to stimulation. p. 402 efferent (ef'er-ent) Conducting away from the center. For example, an efferent arteriole conducts blood away from the glomerulus of a nephron. p. 825

ejaculation (e-jak"u-la'shun) Discharge of sperm-containing semen from the male urethra. p. 894 ejaculatory duct (e-jak'u-lah-to"re dukt) Tube, formed by the joining of the vas deferens and the tube from the seminal vesicle, that transports sperm to the urethra. p. 890 elastic cartilage (e-las'tik kar'ti-lij) Opaque, flexible connective tissue with branching yellow fibers throughout the matrix. p. 156

elastic fiber (e-las'tik fi'ber) Yellow, stretchy, threadlike structure found in connective tissue. p. 152 elastin (e-las'tin) Protein that comprises the yellow, elastic fibers of connective tissue. p. 152

electrocardiogram (e-lek"tro-kar'de-o-gram") A recording of the electrical activity associated with the heartbeat; ECG or EKG. p. 596

electrolyte (e-lek'tro-llt) A substance that ionizes in water. p. 47 electrolyte balance (e-lek'tro-llt bal'ans) Condition when the quantities of electrolytes entering the body equal those leaving it. p. 49 electron (e-lek'tron) A small, negatively charged particle that revolves around the nucleus of an atom. p. 39 electron transport chain (e-lek'tron trans'pohrt) A series of oxidation-reduction reactions that takes high-energy electrons from the citric acid cycle and forms water and ATP. p. 114 electrovalent bond (e-lek"tro-va'lent bond) Chemical bond formed between two ions as a result of the transfer of electrons. p. 44 element (el'ei-ment) A basic chemical substance. p. 39 elevation (el-e-va-shun) Upward movement of a part of the body. p. 278 embolism (em'bo-lizm) Obstruction of a blood vessel caused by a blood clot or bubble of gas that is carried by the blood. p. 565

embryo (em'bre-o) A prenatal stage of development after germ layers form but before the rudiments of all organs are present. p. 946 embryonic disk (em"bre-on'ik disk) A

flattened area in the cleavage embryo from which the embryo arises. p. 946 emission (e-mish'un) The movement of sperm cells from the vas deferens into the ejaculatory duct and urethra. p. 894 emphysema (em"fi-se'mah) Abnormal enlargement of the air sacs of the lungs. p. 801

emulsification (e-mul"si-fi'ka'shun)

Breaking up of fat globules into smaller droplets by the action of bile salts. p. 714 enamel (e-nam'el) Hard covering on the exposed surface of a tooth. p. 693 endocardium (en"do-kar'de-um) Inner lining of the heart chambers. p. 583

endochondral bone (en'do-kon'dral bon)

Bone that begins as hyaline cartilage that is subsequently replaced by bone tissue. p. 201

endocrine gland (en'do-krln gland) A gland that secretes hormones directly into the blood or body fluids. p. 148 endocytosis (en"do-si-to'sis) Physiological process by which substances may move through a cell membrane and involves the formation of tiny, cytoplasmic vacuoles. p. 89

endoderm (en'do-derm) The innermost primary germ layer. p. 946 endolymph (en'do-limf) Fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. p. 471 endometrium (en"do-me'tre-um) The inner lining of the uterus. p. 905 endomysium (en"do-mis'e-um) The sheath of connective tissue surrounding each skeletal muscle fiber. p. 298 endoneurium (en"do-nu're-um) Layer of loose connective tissue that surrounds individual nerve fibers. p. 426 endoplasmic reticulum (en-do-plaz'mic re-tik'u-lum) Organelle composed of a system of connected membranous tubules and vesicles along which protein synthesis occurs. p. 72 endorphin (en-dor'fin) A neuropeptide synthesized in the pituitary gland that suppresses pain. p. 381 endosteum (en-dos'te-um) Tissue lining the medullary cavity within the bone. p. 197 endothelium (en"do-the'le-um) The layer of epithelial cells that forms the inner lining of blood vessels and heart chambers. p. 602

energy (en'er-je) An ability to cause something to move and thus to do work. p. 114

energy balance (en'er-je bal'ans) When the caloric intake of the body equals its caloric output. p. 747 enkephalin (en-kef'ah-lin) A neuropeptide that occurs in the brain and spinal cord; it inhibits pain impulses. p. 381 enterogastric reflex (en-ter-o-gas'trik re'fleks) Inhibition of gastric (stomach) peristalsis and secretions when food enters the small intestine. p. 706 environment (en-vi'ron-ment) Conditions and elements that make up the surroundings of the body. p. 6 enzyme (en'zlm) A protein that catalyzes a specific biochemical reaction. p. 54 eosinophil (e"o-sin'o-fil) White blood cell containing cytoplasmic granules that stain with acidic dye. p. 554 ependyma (e-pen'di-mah) A membrane composed of neuroglial cells that lines the ventricles of the brain. p. 372 epicardium (ep"i-kar'de-um) The visceral portion of the pericardium on the surface of the heart. p. 583 epicondyle (ep"i-kon'dll) A projection of a bone located above a condyle. p. 214

epidermis (ep"i-der'mis) Outer epithelial layer of the skin. p. 170 epididymis (ep"i-did'i-mis) Highly coiled tubule that leads from the seminiferous tubules of the testis to the vas deferens. p. 889

epidural space (ep"i-du'ral spas) The space between the dural sheath of the spinal cord and the bone of the vertebral canal. p. 396

epigastric region (ep"i-gas'trik re'jun) The upper middle portion of the abdomen. p. 22

epiglottis (ep"i-glot'is) Flaplike cartilaginous structure located at the back of the tongue near the entrance to the trachea. p. 782 epimysium (ep"i-mis'e-um) The outer sheath of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle. p. 298 epinephrine (ep"i-nef'rin) A hormone the adrenal medulla secretes during times of stress. p. 525 epineurium (ep"i-nu're-um) Outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a nerve. p. 426

epiphyseal disk (ep"i-fiz'e-al disk)

Cartilaginous layer within the epiphysis of a long bone that grows. p. 202 epiphysis (e-pif'i-sis) The end of a long bone. p. 196

epithelial membrane (ep"i-the'le-al memtiran) Thin layer of tissue lining a cavity or covering a surface p. 169 epithelial tissue (ep"i-the'le-al tish'u) One of the basic types of tissue that covers all free body surfaces. p. 143 equilibrium (e"kwi-lib're-um) A state of balance between two opposing forces. p. 83 erection (e-rek'shun) The filling of tissues with blood making the structure rigid and elevated. p. 893 erythroblast (e-rith'ro-blast) An immature red blood cell. p. 552 erythroblastosis fetalis (e-rith"ro-blas-to'sis fetalis) A life-threatening condition of massive agglutination of the blood in the fetus or neonate due to the mother's anti-Rh antibodies reacting with the baby's Rh-positive red blood cells. p. 573 erythrocyte (e-rith'ro-slt) A red blood cell. p. 548

erythropoietin (e-rith"ro-poi'(>tin) (EPo) A kidney hormone that promotes red blood cell formation. p. 552 esophageal hiatus (ei-sof"ah-je'al hi-a'tus) Opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes. p. 699 esophagus (ei-sof'ah-gus) Tubular portion of the digestive tract that leads from the pharynx to the stomach. p. 698 essential amino acid (e-sen'shal ah-me'no as'id) Amino acid required for health that body cells cannot synthesize in adequate amounts. p. 743 essential fatty acid (ei-sen'shal fat'e as'id) Fatty acid required for health that body cells cannot synthesize in adequate amounts. p. 742

essential nutrient (ei-sen'shal nu'trei-ent) A nutrient necessary for growth, normal functioning, and maintaining life that the diet must supply because the body cannot synthesize it. p. 738 estrogens (es'tro-jenz) A group of hormones (including estradiol, estrone, and estriol) that stimulate the development of female secondary sex characteristics and produce an environment suitable fertilization, implantation, and growth of an embryo. p. 908

euploid (u'ploid) Having a balanced set of chromosomes. p. 991 evaporation (e"vap'o-ra-shun) Changing a liquid into a gas. p. 182 eversion (e-ver'zhun) Outward turning movement of the sole of the foot. p. 276 exchange reaction (eks-chanj re-ak'shun) A chemical reaction in which parts of two kinds of molecules trade positions. p. 45 excretion (ek-skre'shun) Elimination of metabolic wastes. p. 5 exocrine gland (ek'so-krin gland) A gland that secretes its products into a duct or onto a body surface. p. 148 exocytosis (eks"o-si-to'sis) Exiting from the cell. p. 89

expiration (ek"spi-ra'shun) Expulsion of air from the lungs. p. 792 extension (ek-sten'shun) Movement increasing the angle between parts at a joint. p. 276 extracellular fluid (ek"strah-sel'u-lar floo'id) Body fluids outside the individual cells. p. 857

extrapyramidal tract (ek"strah-pi-ram'i-dal trakt) Nerve tracts, other than the corticospinal tracts, that transmit impulses from the cerebral cortex into the spinal cord. p. 408

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