Events Leading to Neurotransmitter


1. Action potential passes along an axon and over the surface of its synaptic knob.

2. Synaptic knob membrane becomes more permeable to calcium ions, and they diffuse inward.

3. In the presence of calcium ions, synaptic vesicles fuse to synaptic knob membrane.

4. Synaptic vesicles release their neurotransmitter by exocytosis into the synaptic cleft.

5. Synaptic vesicles become part of the membrane.

6. The added membrane provides material for endocytotic vesicles.

Shier-Butler-Lewis: Human Anatomy and Physiology, Ninth Edition

III. Integration and Coordination

10. Nervous System I: Basic Structure and Function

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2001

Clinical Application

Opiates in the Human Body

Opiate drugs, such as morphine, heroin, codeine, and opium, are potent painkillers derived from the poppy plant. These drugs alter pain perception, making it easier to tolerate, and elevate mood.

The human body produces its own opiates, called endorphins (for "endogenous morphine"), that are peptides. Like the poppy-derived opiates that they structurally resemble, endorphins influence mood and perception of pain.

The discovery of endorphins began in 1971 in research laboratories at Stanford University and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, where researchers exposed pieces of brain tissue from experimental mammals to morphine. The morphine was radioactively labeled (some of the atoms were radioactive isotopes) so researchers could follow its destination in the brain.

The morphine indeed bound to receptors on the membranes of certain nerve cells, particularly in the neurons that transmit pain. Why, the investigators wondered, would an animal's brain contain receptors for a chemical made by a poppy? Could a mammal's body manufacture its own opiates? The opiate receptor, then, would normally bind the body's own opiates (the endor-phins) but would also be able to bind the chemically similar compounds made by the poppy. Over the next few years, researchers identified several types of endorphins in the human brain and associated their release with situations involving pain relief, such as acupuncture and analgesia to mother and child during childbirth.

The existence of endorphins explains why some people who are addicted to opiate drugs such as heroin experience withdrawal pain when they stop taking the drug. Initially, the body interprets the frequent binding of heroin to its endorphin receptors as an excess of endorphins. To bring the level down, the body slows its own production of endorphins. Then, when the addict stops taking the heroin, the body is caught short of opiates (heroin and endorphins). The result is pain.

Opiate drugs can be powerfully addicting when abused—that is, taken repeatedly by a person who is not in pain. These same drugs, however, are extremely useful in dulling severe pain, particularly in terminal illnesses. ■

outgoing impulse triggered. If the net effect is excitatory but subthreshold, an impulse will not be triggered, but because the neuron is close to threshold, it will be much more responsive to any further excitatory stimulation, a condition called facilitation (fah-sil"i-ta'shun).

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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