1. Which process—diffusion, osmosis, or filtration— accounts for the following situations?
a. Injection of a drug that is hypertonic to the tissues stimulates pain.
b. A person with extremely low blood pressure stops producing urine.
c. The concentration of urea in the dialyzing fluid of an artificial kidney is kept low.
2. Which characteristic of cell membranes may explain why fat-soluble substances such as chloroform and ether rapidly affect cells?
3. A person exposed to many X rays may lose white blood cells and become more susceptible to infection. How are these effects related?
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.