The pericardium (per"i-kar'de-um) is a covering that encloses the heart and the proximal ends of the large blood vessels to which it attaches. The pericardium consists of an outer fibrous bag, the fibrous pericardium, that surrounds a more delicate, double-layered sac. The inner layer of this sac, the visceral pericardium (epicardium), covers the heart. At the base of the heart, the visceral pericardium turns back upon itself to become the parietal pericardium which forms the inner lining of the fibrous pericardium.
The fibrous pericardium is a tough, protective sac largely composed of dense connective tissue. It is attached to the central portion of the diaphragm, the
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.