Clinical Applications

chapter 1

I.1: Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging:

A Tale of Two Patients 10

chapter 2

2.1: Radioactive Isotopes Reveal Physiology 42 2.2: Ionizing Radiation: A Legacy of the Cold War 46 2.3: CT Scanning and PET Imaging 58

Chapter 3

3.1: Faulty Ion Channels Cause Disease 70 3.2: The Blood-Brain Barrier 73 3.3: Disease at the Organelle Level 80 3.4: Cloning 102

Chapter 4

4.1: Overriding a Block in Glycolysis 117 4.2: DNA Makes History 126 4.3: Gene Amplification 132 4.4: Phenylketonuria 136

chapter 5

5.1: Abnormalities of Collagen 153 5.2: Tissue Engineering 162

Chapter 6

6.1: Skin Cancer 174 6.2: Hair Loss 178 6.3: Acne 180

6.4: Elevated Body Temperature 184 chapter 7

7.1: Fractures 206 7.2: Osteoporosis 210

7.3: Disorders of the Vertebral Column 231 Chapter 8

8.1: Replacing Joints 287 8.2: Joint Disorders 290

Chapter 9

9.1: Myasthenia Gravis 306

9.2: Use and Disuse of Skeletal Muscles 314

9.3: TMJ Syndrome 322

chapter 10

10.1: Migraine 365

10.2: Multiple Sclerosis 368

10.3: Factors Affecting Impulse Conduction 380 10.4: Opiates in the Human Body 385 10.5: Drug Addiction 387

chapter 11

II.1: Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure 400 11.2: Uses of Reflexes 407

11.3: Spinal Cord Injuries 410

11.4: Cerebral Injuries and Abnormalities 419

11.5: Parkinson Disease 420

11.6: Brain Waves 427

11.7: Spinal Nerve Injuries 440

chapter 12

12.1: Cancer Pain and Chronic Pain 461 12.2: Mixed-up Senses—Synesthesia 463 12.3: Smell and Taste Disorders 468 12.4: Hearing Loss 477 12.5: Refraction Disorders 490

Chapter 13

13.1: Using Hormones to Improve Athletic

Performance 510 13.2: Growth Hormone Ups and Downs 517 13.3: Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex 531 13.4: Diabetes Mellitus 534 13.5: Misrepresenting Melatonin 535

Chapter 14

14.1: King George III and Porphyria Variegata 555 14.2: Leukemia 559

14.3: The Return of the Medicinal Leech 569 14.4: Living with Hemophilia 570 14.5: Replacing Blood 575

chapter 15

15.1: Heart Transplants 594

15.2: Arrhythmias 600

15.3: Blood Vessel Disorders 608

15.4: Measurement of Arterial Blood Pressure 612

15.5: Space Medicine 614

15.6: Hypertension 617

15.7: Exercise and the Cardiovascular System 619 15.8: Molecular Causes of Cardiovascular Disease 640 15.9: Coronary Artery Disease 642

Chapter 16

16.1: Immunotherapy 668

16.2: Immunity Breakdown: AIDS 678

chapter 17

17.1: Dental Caries 696

17.2: Oh, My Aching Stomach! 705

17.3: Hepatitis 713

17.4: Gallbladder Disease 715

17.5: Disorders of the Large Intestine 727

Chapter 18

18.1: Obesity 748

18.2: Do Vitamins Protect Against Heart Disease and Cancer? 751 18.3: Dietary Supplements—Proceed with Caution 765 18.4: Nutrition and the Athlete 768

Chapter 19

19.1: The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on the Respiratory

System 782 19.2: Lung Irritants 793 19.3: Respiratory Disorders that Decrease

Ventilation 801 19.4: Exercise and Breathing 805 19.5: Disorders that Impair Gas Exchange 808

chapter 20

20.1: Chronic Kidney Failure 824 20.2: Glomerulonephritis 828 20.3: The Nephrotic Syndrome 837 20.4: Renal Clearance 844 20.5: Urinalysis: Clues to Health 849

chapter 21

21.1: Water Balance Disorders 862

21.2: Sodium and Potassium Imbalances 867

21.3: Acid-Base Imbalances 872

chapter 22

22.1: Prostate Enlargement 892 22.2: Male Infertility 894

22.3: Assisted Reproductive Technologies 914 22.4: Female Infertility 921 22.5: Treating Breast Cancer 924 22.6: Human Milk—The Perfect Food for Human Babies 927

Chapter 23

23.1: Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis 944 23.2: Some Causes of Birth Defects 956 23.3: Joined for Life 964 23.4: Old Before Their Time 971

Chapter 24

24.1: It's All in the Genes 982 24.2: Down Syndrome 992

24.3: Gene Therapy Successes and Setbacks 998

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