Cellular Differentiation

Because all body cells (except egg and sperm) contain the same DNA information, they might be expected to look and function alike; obviously, they do not. The process by which cells develop different structures and specialized functions is called differentiation (difcfer-enâshe-acshun).

Mitosis is sometimes called cellular reproduction, because it results in two cells from one — the cell reproduces. This may be confusing, because meiosis is the prelude to human sexual reproduction. Both mitosis and meiosis are forms of cell division, with similar steps but different outcomes, and occurring in different types of cells.

Figure

Mitosis is a continuous process during which the replicated genetic material is divided into two equal portions. After reading about mitosis, identify the phases of the process and the cell parts shown in this diagram.

Chromosome

Centrioles

Centromere

Chromosome

Centrioles

Centromere

Figure 3.38

(a) In prophase, chromosomes form from chromatin in the nucleus, and the centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell. (b) A micrograph of a cell in prophase (250x micrograph enlarged to 1,000x).

Chromosomes

Chromosomes

Diagram Blood Pressure Reading

Centrioles

Figure

Centrioles

Figure

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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