Cardiac Muscle

Cardiac muscle appears only in the heart. It is composed of striated cells joined end to end, forming fibers that are interconnected in branching, three-dimensional networks. Each cell contains a single nucleus and many filaments of actin and myosin similar to those in skeletal muscle. A cardiac muscle cell also has a well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum, a system of transverse tubules, and many mitochondria. However, the cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of a cardiac muscle fiber are less developed and store less calcium than those of a skeletal muscle fiber. On the other hand, the transverse tubules of cardiac muscle fibers are larger than those in skeletal muscle, and they release many calcium ions into the sarcoplasm in response to a single muscle impulse.

The calcium ions in transverse tubules come from the fluid outside the muscle fiber. Thus, extracellular calcium partially controls the strength of cardiac muscle contraction and enables cardiac muscle fibers to contract longer than skeletal muscle fibers can.

Drugs called calcium channel blockers are used to stop spasms of the heart muscle. They do this by blocking ion channels that admit extracellular calcium into cardiac muscle cells.

The opposing ends of cardiac muscle cells are connected by cross-bands called intercalated disks. These bands are actually complex membrane junctions. Not only do they help join cells and transmit the force of contraction from cell to cell, but the intercellular junctions of the fused membranes of intercalated disks allow ions to diffuse between the cells. This allows muscle impulses to travel rapidly from cell to cell (see figs. 5.30 and 9.19).

When one portion of the cardiac muscle network is stimulated, the impulse passes to other fibers of the network, and the whole structure contracts as a unit (a syncytium); that is, the network responds to stimulation in an all-or-none manner. Cardiac muscle is also self-exciting and rhythmic. Consequently, a pattern of contraction and relaxation repeats again and again, causing the rhythmic contraction of the heart. Also, the refractory period of cardiac muscle is longer than in skeletal muscle and lasts until the contraction ends. Thus, sustained or tetanic contractions do not occur in the heart muscle. Table 9.2 summarizes characteristics of the three types of muscles.

99 How is cardiac muscle similar to skeletal muscle? ^9 How does cardiac muscle differ from skeletal muscle? ^9 What is the function of intercalated disks? Q What characteristic of cardiac muscle causes the heart to contract as a unit?

ure 9.19

Blood Vessels

Intercalated disk Cardiac muscle cells

The intercalated disks of cardiac muscle, shown in this transmission electron micrograph, bind adjacent cells and allow ions to move between cells (12,500x).

Intercalated disk Cardiac muscle cells


The intercalated disks of cardiac muscle, shown in this transmission electron micrograph, bind adjacent cells and allow ions to move between cells (12,500x).


Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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