The seat of tobacco addiction lies in nicotine's binding to nerve cell surface receptors that normally bind the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Not only does nicotine alter the receptor so that positive ions enter the cell, triggering dopamine release, but the chemical's repeated presence in a heavy smoker stimulates excess receptors to accumulate— although they soon become nonfunctional. Nicotine's effects are complex.
Shier-Butler-Lewis: I III. Integration and I 10. Nervous System I: I I © The McGraw-Hill
Human Anatomy and Coordination Basic Structure and Companies, 2001
Physiology, Ninth Edition Function
Nerves carry impulses that allow body systems to communicate.
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