The seat of tobacco addiction lies in nicotine's binding to nerve cell surface receptors that normally bind the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Not only does nicotine alter the receptor so that positive ions enter the cell, triggering dopamine release, but the chemical's repeated presence in a heavy smoker stimulates excess receptors to accumulate— although they soon become nonfunctional. Nicotine's effects are complex.

Shier-Butler-Lewis: I III. Integration and I 10. Nervous System I: I I © The McGraw-Hill

Human Anatomy and Coordination Basic Structure and Companies, 2001

Physiology, Ninth Edition Function


nervous System

Nerves carry impulses that allow body systems to communicate.

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