Fik

Cachexia, 771 Cacosmia, 468

Caffeine, 134t, 864, 924, 926t Calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon), 319, 345, 346, 348, 361,1020 torn, 348 Calcaneus, 245, 246, 346 Calcitonin, 209-10, 507t, 511,

521-22, 522t, 539 Calcium, 757-59, 761t absorption of, 730, 752, 757 blood, 521-24, 525, 526, 832t,

917, 1030 in cells, 49, 50t in coagulation, 565, 566, 567t deficiency of, 380 dietary, 210

electrolyte balance, 864-66,

864, 865 in extracellular fluid, 858, 859t functions of, 209 glomerular filtrate, 832t in heart action, 599, 602 in human body, 40t in muscle contraction, 304, 306, 307, 308, 308t, 316 in nerve impulse transmission, 381 urine, 832t, 1032 Calcium carbonate, 158, 523 Calcium channel(s), 70, 70t, 365 voltage-sensitive, 379

Calcium channel blockers,

316, 618t Calcium phosphate, 158, 209, 523 Callus bony, 206, 207 cartilaginous, 206 Callus (skin), 172 Calment, Jeanne, 941 Calmodulin, 315, 511 Calorie, 745

used in various activities, 746t Canaliculi, 158, 158,199, 200 inferior, 481-82, 482 superior, 481-82, 482 Canal of Schlemm, 486, 487 Cancer, 104, 971, 972t bone, 203

breast, 924-25, 924t, 925 colorectal, 727-29, 728, 729t detecting recurrence of, 668 endocrine paraneoplastic syndrome in, 524 genes causing, 103 gene therapy for, 997-98 genetic changes in cancer cells, 845 hypercalcemia in, 865-66 kidney, 669, 838 liver, 713

prevention of angiogenesis, 581 prostate gland, 203 skin, 134, 174-75, 174 testes, 883 thyroid gland, 504 tissue invasion by, 103t treatment of, 669 urinary bladder, 845 vitamins as preventatives, 751 Cancer cells characteristics of, 103, 103t invasion of adjacent tissue, 143 Cancer syndromes, 945t Cancer vaccine, 1000 Cannabinoid, 460 Capacitation of sperm cells, 891 Capillary(ies), 588, 602-7, 610t, 639 arrangement of, 604 blood flow in, 604 in brain, 73

exchanges in, 605-7, 606 permeability of, 603-4, 604 walls of, 603 Capitate, 239 Capitulum, 235, 283 Captopril (Capoten), 468 Carbaminohemoglobin, 811-12, 812t Carbohydrates, 739-40 in cells, 50, 51, 57t dietary sources of, 739 digestion of, 719-20, 720t, 721 energy value of, 745t, 746 metabolism of, 114-17, 116, 121, 709-10, 712t, 739-40, 739, 740, 745t requirements for, 740, 745t storage of, 120, 120 synthesis of, 110, 111 Carbon, 40t, 41t Carbonate, in cells, 49 Carbonated beverages, 759

Carbon dioxide blood, 561, 616, 805, 1030 from capillaries into alveoli,

789-90, 789 in cells, 49, 50t diffusion across respiratory membrane, 806 partial pressure of, 802-3, 804t respiratory excretion of,

779-80, 870-71, 870, 871 space-filling model of, 60 structure of, 47 transport in blood, 810-12, 811, 812, 812t Carbonic acid, 47t, 802, 811-12, 866-68, 868, 870, 870, 872-73

Carbonic anhydrase, 811, 869 Carbon monoxide, 49 Carbon monoxide poisoning, 779, 810

Carboxyl group, 54, 54, 869, 870t Carboxypeptidase, 707, 720t Carbuncle, 189

Carcinoma, 148. See also Cancer Cardiac arrest, 602, 640 Cardiac catheterization, 642 Cardiac center, 423, 597, 599, 612 Cardiac cycle, 591-93, 592, 593 regulation of, 597-602, 599 Cardiac muscle, 316, 316, 317t age-related changes in, 637 Cardiac muscle fiber, 593-95 Cardiac muscle tissue, 161, 161,

163t, 583 Cardiac nerve, 432 Cardiac output, 610-12, 615, 637 Cardiac plexus, 443 Cardiac tamponade, 618, 639 Cardiac vein, 589, 592 anterior, 590 great, 590 middle, 590 small, 590 Cardioaccelerator reflex, 597, 613 Cardioinhibitor reflex, 597, 612 Cardiology, 24

Cardiovascular system, 15, 17, 19t, 20, 581, 582. See also Heart age-related changes in,

637-39, 969t blood vessels of, 602-8 effect of autonomic stimulation on, 446t exercise and, 619, 639 molecular causes of disease of,

640-41, 641 system interconnections of, 643 Carina, 786, 786 Carotene, 185, 750 Carotid artery, 610,1011

common, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 599, 622-24, 623, 625t, 626, 627, 628, 631, 802, 1021, 1022, 1023 external, 623-24, 626, 627, 631 internal, 623-25, 626, 627, 631 Carotid body, 625, 803, 803 Carotid canal, 216, 217, 224t,

259, 260 Carotid foramen, 261 Carotid sinus, 597, 599, 625, 626 Carpal(s), 211t, 212, 212, 236, 237,

239, 240t, 277, 360 Carpal region, 24, 25

Carpal tunnel syndrome, 440 Carpometacarpal joint, 281t Carpus, 237-38 Carrier, of genetic disease,

983, 985 Carrier protein, 86, 86, 89, 89 Cartilage, 156-58

articular, 196, 197, 201, 203, 273-75, 274, 275, 282, 284, 285, 288, 292 elastic, 156, 157 fibrocartilage. See Fibrocartilage hyaline, 156, 157, 201, 201t,

203, 272-73, 785, 786 replacement, 163 Cartilaginous joints, 271-73, 272,

273, 278t Casein, 771

Catabolism, 110-12, 111, 120, 738

Catalase, 78, 112

Catalyst, 47

Catecholamines, 525

1008,1009 Caudate nucleus, 418, 421 Causalgia, 497 C cells, 521

CCR5 receptor, 65, 678-79 CD4 receptor, 65, 663, 678 Cecum, 34, 35, 689, 717, 723, 724 Celiac artery, 36, 622, 624,

625t, 631 Celiac disease, 722, 771 Celiac ganglion, 443 Celiac plexus, 444 Celiac region, 24, 25 Cell(s), 6, 6, 9, 9, 12t, 65. See also specific organelles aging of, 21

chromatin of, 82, 85t, 86

cytoplasm of, 65, 72-82

cytosol of, 72

death of, 82

eukaryotic, 65

inclusions of, 80

inorganic substances in, 49, 50t movements into and out of,

82-93,93t organic substances in, 50-5 7,

50t, 57t pluripotent, 102 prokaryotic, 65 shape of, 65, 66 size of, 65, 66, 99 specialized, 95-97, 101 surface area of, 99 Cell body, of neuron, 363, 364,

366, 381 Cell cycle, 94-98, 94

anaphase, 94, 95, 98, 99t cytoplasmic division, 95, 100 interphase, 94, 94 metaphase, 94, 95, 98, 99t mitosis, 94, 95, 96, 97 prophase of, 94, 95, 97, 99t telophase, 94, 95, 99, 99t Cell division, 161 control of, 98-103

loss of, 100-103, 103, 104 Cell implant, 163, 675 Cell membrane, 65-72, 67, 69, 72, 85t active transport across, 88-89, 89, 93t cellular adhesion molecules,

71-72, 74, 557 characteristics of, 65-68 diffusion across, 82-86, 84,

85, 93t endocytosis by, 89-91, 90,

91, 93t exocytosis by, 89, 92, 92, 93t facilitated diffusion across, 86,

86, 93t filtration across, 87, 88, 93t intercellular junctions, 70-71,

72t, 74 membrane potential. See

Membrane potential osmosis across, 86-87, 87,

88, 93t permeability of, 86-87 structure of, 69-70, 69 transcytosis by, 92, 93, 93t Cellular adhesion molecules,

71-72, 74, 557 Cellular differentiation, 95-97, 101, 102 Cellular immune response,

663, 664 Cellular respiration, 114-20, 115, 309, 310, 779, 1034-37, 1035, 1036 Cellular turnover, 718 Cellulose, 50, 726, 739 Celsius temperature scale, 1029 Cementum, 693, 694, 728 Central canal, of spinal cord, 372,

399, 402, 403, 404 Central chemoreceptors, 802-3 Central nervous system, 363, 364, 395, 426t. See also Brain; Spinal cord Central sulcus, 413, 414, 415, 416 Central vein, 709, 711 Central venous pressure, 618-19 Centrioles, 67, 78, 79, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99

887, 979 Centrosome, 78, 79, 85t, 95, 943 Cephalic region, 24, 25 Cephalic vein, 633, 633, 634, 638 Cephalin, 51 Cerebellar cortex, 424 Cerebellar peduncle, 421, 424-25, 425 inferior, 425, 425 middle, 425, 425 superior, 425, 425 Cerebellum, 396, 412, 413, 421, 424-25, 425, 426t, 1006, 1007,1026 Cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius), 398, 398, 399, 422, 422 Cerebral artery anterior, 513, 625, 627 middle, 625, 627 posterior, 623, 627 Cerebral cortex, 413, 446, 805

functional regions of, 414-17 Cerebral edema, 807 Cerebral hemispheres, 412-13, 412, 414 hemisphere dominance, 417-18 Cerebral palsy, 419 Cerebral peduncles, 422

Cerebral vein, 399 Cerebrospinal fluid, 372,

397-400, 399 Cerebrospinal fluid pressure,

400-401, 400, 401 Cerebrovascular accident (stroke), 419, 447, 565, 617, 618t, 972t Cerebrum, 396, 412, 413, 425, 426t, 1006, 1007 functions of, 414-18, 417t injuries and abnormalities of, 419

structure of, 412-14, 413, 414 Ceroid pigment, 21 Cerumen, 469, 477 Ceruminous glands, 150t, 179-80,

181t, 469 Cervical cap, 927, 928t Cervical curvature, 226, 226 Cervical lymph nodes,

656-57, 656 Cervical nerves, 324t, 326t, 431,

432-33, 434 Cervical orifice, 904, 905 Cervical plexus, 433, 437, 440 Cervical region, 24, 25 Cervical vertebrae, 211t, 226, 227,

229, 230t, 410, 1007 Cervix, 899, 904, 905-6, 913, 920

dilation of, 918, 920 Cesarean section, 930 Chaperones, 127 Cheek(s), 689-91, 695t Cheekbrush tests, 689 Chemical(s), 8-9 Chemical barrier(s), to infection, 660, 661t Chemical barrier contraceptives, 927 Chemical digestion, 687 Chemical energy, release of, 114 Chemical reaction, 45-47 Chemoreceptors, 455-56, 625 central, 802-3 peripheral, 803, 803 Chemotaxis, 661, 670t positive, 557 Cherry red spot, 81 Chest, muscles of, 326 Chest pain, 642 Chest tube, 796

See also Mastication Cheyne-Stokes respiration, 813 Chicken pox, 173t, 670 Chief cells, 700, 702, 703 Childbirth, 229, 273, 315, 519, 850, 918-19, 918, 919t, 920, 958 breathing during, 803 Childhood, 966, 969t skull of child, 269 Chlamydia infection, 931t Chloride, 47, 47, 811, 832t blood, 563, 1030 electrolyte balance, 864-66,

864, 865 in extracellular fluid, 858, 859t in intracellular fluid, 49, 50t, 858, 859t Chloride channels, 70, 70t abnormal, 71, 708, 980, 983, 985 Chloride shift, 811, 811

Chlorine, 40t, 44, 44, 760, 761t Chloroethylene, 895 Cholangiogram, 715 Cholecalciferol, 751 Cholecystectomy, 714-15 Cholecystitis, 714-15, 730 Cholecystogram, 715 Cholecystokinin, 704, 706, 708-9,

714, 716, 730, 739, 749 Cholelithiasis, 715, 730 Cholera, 670, 862 Cholestasis, 730 Cholesterol, 52, 53, 741 in atherosclerosis, 608 bile, 711-12, 714, 742 blood, 19, 91, 562, 562t, 642, 742, 755, 1030 control of, 640-41 in cell membrane, 69 dietary, 740, 752 entry into cells, 91 hormones derived from, 505 in lipoproteins, 562, 562t metabolism to vitamin D,

524, 525 synthesis of, 742 Cholinergic fiber, 440, 445 Cholinergic receptors, 446t, 447 Chondrocytes, 156, 157, 275 Chondrodysplasia, 152t Chondromucoprotein, 156 Chordae tendineae, 585, 586, 587 Chordae tenodynia, 591 Chorion, 947, 947, 948, 949, 950, 952, 960

Chorionic villi, 947, 947, 948, 949,

950, 952, 960 Chorionic villus sampling, 991-92,

995, 996t Choroid artery, anterior, 625, 626 Choroid coat, 484, 484, 486, 488 Choroid plexus, 372, 398, 399 Chromaffin cells, 525 Chromaffin granules, 525 Chromatids, 886-87, 886, 887, 979 Chromatin, 67, 82, 85t, 86, 94, 95,

97, 124 Chromatophilic substance,

364, 366 Chromium, 763, 764t Chromosome(s), 78, 82, 97, 98,

124, 978, 979, 980-83, 981. See also Meiosis; Mitosis homologous, 886, 981 Chromosome disorders, 900,

991-92 Chronic bronchitis, 812 Chronic fatigue syndrome, 676 Chronic granulomatous disease, 553 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 803, 972t Chronic pain, 460-61 Chylomicrons, 562, 562t,

720-21, 722 Chyme, 705-6, 706 Chymopapain, 231 Chymotrypsin, 707, 720t Cigarette smoking, 78, 210, 642, 812 effect on respiratory system,

782-83, 783 nicotine addiction,

387-88, 388 in pregnancy, 810, 956

smoker's cough, 782 smoking cessation, 783 Cilia, 67, 78-79, 79, 85t, 144-45 of olfactory receptor cells,

464, 465 of uterine tubes, 903, 905 Ciliary body, 484, 485-86, 485,

486, 487, 489 Ciliary ganglion, 444 Ciliary muscles, 485, 486, 490 Ciliary process, 485, 485 Circadian rhythm, 534-35 Circle of Willis, 623 Circular sulcus, 413 Circulation as characteristic of life, 5t paths of, 619-22 Circulatory system. See also Cardiovascular system of fetus, 960-61, 961t, 962, 963 of neonate, 965, 966 Circumduction, 276, 280 Circumflex artery, 589, 590, 592 anterior, 628 posterior, 628 Cirrhosis, 675, 730 Cisterna chyli, 653 Cisternae of Golgi apparatus, 74 of transverse tubules, 302, 303 Citrated whole blood, 574 Citric acid cycle, 114, 115, 118,

118, 119, 121, 309, 741, 741, 743, 744, 1034, 1036 Clavicle, 31, 32, 211, 211t, 212, 233, 234, 240t, 282, 329, 359, 791 Clavicular notch, 232 Cleavage, 942-46, 942, 943, 946, 959t indeterminate, 945 Cleft chin, 982 Cleft palate, 220 Cleidocranial dysplasia, 234 Climacteric female. See Menopause male, 898 Clitoris, 337, 899, 906, 907, 908t, 958

Cloaked red blood cells, 575 Clomiphene (Clomid), 902 Clone, 663

Cloning, 99, 102, 102 Closed fracture, 206 Clostridium botulinum, 303 Clot, 185, 186 Clot-busting drugs, 642 Clotting. See Coagulation Clotting factors, 2, 564, 566,

567t, 570 Clubfoot, 245

Coagulation, 564-68, 564t, 567t, 602, 753 extrinsic clotting mechanism,

564, 566 fate of blood clots, 565-66 intrinsic clotting mechanism,

564-65, 566 prevention of, 568, 568t Cobalt, 40t, 755, 756, 763, 764t Cobalt-80, 43

Cocaine, 384t, 387, 888, 926t Cocarboxylase, 753 Coccygeal nerves, 432, 434 Coccygeus muscle, 336, 337, 338t

Coccyx, 211, 211t, 212, 225, 226, 229-30, 230, 230t, 243t, 337, 359, 1009 Cochlea, 431, 469, 471, 472,

475, 478 Cochlear implant, 477 Cochlear nerve, 472, 473 Coconut oil, 52 Codeine, 385, 461 Codominance, 985 Codon, 125, 127, 128, 129,

130t, 133 Coenzyme(s), 113 Coenzyme A, 755 Cofactors, 113 Cogwheel rigidity, 333 Coitus interruptus, 923, 928t Cold receptors, 457-58 Coley's toxins, 669 Colitis, 726

187, 198, 204, 564, 757, 970 abnormal, 152t, 153, 153 Collagen cream, antiaging, 152 Collagenous fibers, 152, 152, 154, 154t, 155-56, 155, 156, 157 Collateral (axon branches),

364, 366 Collateral circulation, 589 Collateral ganglia, 439, 442 Collectin(s), 660

Collecting duct, 519, 650-54, 653, 823, 825, 827, 828, 830, 831, 843t, 861 Colles fracture, 248 Colliculus inferior, 421, 422 superior, 421, 422 Colloid, 520, 521 Colloid osmotic pressure, 560,

606, 606, 654, 833 Colon, 723,1006,1024

724, 1025 descending, 34, 36, 723-24, 724

1009, 1025 transverse, 34, 35, 717, 723, 724, 1008, 1013, 1025 Colonoscopy, 728t, 729 Colony-stimulating factors, 548,

663, 663t, 669 Color blindness, 455, 455, 494, 989-90

Colorectal cancer, 728-29, 728,

728t, 729t Color vision, 492, 494-95 Colostomy, 729 Colostrum, 667, 920, 927, 963 Colposcope, 906 Coma, 423

hepatic, 711 Comedone, 180, 180t Comminuted fracture, 206 Common nerve pathways, 460 Communicating artery anterior, 627 posterior, 624, 627 Compact bone, 196-98, 197, 198,

199, 200, 201, 203, 248 Compartment, 300 Compartment syndrome, 300

Complement, 667, 670 Complementary base pairs, 122-23, 123, 124, 130, 131, 132 Complete penetrance, 986 Complete protein, 743 Complex traits, 986-87, 987, 988 Compliance, of lungs, 796 Compound, 39, 41 Compound gland, 148, 149, 149t Computed tomography scan, 2, 58-59, 58 quantitative, 210 Computer-aided sperm analysis,

894, 894, 895 Concentration gradient, 82, 86 Concentric contraction, 313, 313 Conception, date of, 942 Concussion, 419 Condom, 926, 928t, 929 Conduction, in body temperature regulation, 182 Conductive deafness, 477 Condyles, 214t of femur, 244, 244, 286, 288 of humerus, 235 of mandible, 215, 222-23, 222, 262 occipital, 216, 216, 259, 260,

261, 263, 265 of tibia, 243, 244, 245, 286 Condyloid joint, 276, 277, 278t Cones, 455, 488, 491-93, 493,

494, 495 Conformation, of proteins, 54, 56, 112

Congenital rubella syndrome, 956 Congestive heart failure, 639 Conization, 930 Conjoined twins, 964, 964 Conjunctiva, 481-82, 481, 485 Conjunctivitis, 481, 497 Connecting stalk, 946, 947, 948,

949, 950, 952 Connective tissue, 142, 143t abnormal, 640 cell types in, 151, 151, 154t characteristics of, 151 covering skeletal muscle,

174, 274 elastic, 155, 156, 159t fibers of, 152-53, 152, 154t loose, 152-54, 154, 159t,

169, 275 reticular, 154-55, 155, 159t specialized, 153 Connective tissue cells, 99, 101 Connective tissue proper, 153 Constipation, 727, 730 Constrictor muscles, of pharynx,

696, 698 Contact dermatitis, 172 Contact inhibition, 100, 103t Contact lens, 490

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, 822 Contraception, 923-30, 928t Contraceptive implant, 929 Contracture, 349 Contralateral, definition of, 21 Conus medullaris, 400, 402, 402 Convection, in body temperature regulation, 182

Convergence, of nerve impulse,

385, 386 Convolutions, 412, 413, 414 Convulsion, 349 Copper, 40t, 763, 764t Coracobrachialis muscle, 32, 33,

34, 328, 328t, 329, 329 Coracohumeral ligament, 279, 282 Coracoid process, 233, 282, 317 Cordotomy, 448 Corn (skin), 172 Cornea, 481, 483-84, 484, 485,

487, 489, 490 Corneal transplant, 100, 484, 673 Corniculate cartilage, 782-83,

784, 785 Coronal section, 22, 22, 23 Coronal suture, 213, 214, 215, 221,

225, 255, 256, 265 Corona radiata, 902, 902, 904, 916 Coronary angiography, 588, 591, 642

Coronary artery, 581, 587, 588-89, 590, 591, 592, 622, 625t, 631, 637 Coronary artery disease, 589, 640-42

Coronary bypass surgery, 581, 642 Coronary embolism, 617 Coronary ligament, 709, 710 Coronary sinus, 585, 586, 589,

590, 592 Coronary stent, 642 Coronary thrombosis, 589,

617, 642 Coronoid fossa, 235, 237 Coronoid process, 208, 215, 222-23, 222, 237, 238, 262, 283 Corpora cavernosa, 893, 893, 907 Corpora quadrigemina, 422, 422 Cor pulmonale, 639 Corpus albicans, 904, 910, 911 Corpus callosum, 412, 413, 418,

422, 1007, 1026 Corpus luteum, 904, 910, 911,

916, 917 Corpus spongiosum, 893, 893 Cortical granules, 913 Cortical nephrons, 829, 830 Corticospinal tract, 404, 407,

409-10, 409, 414-15, 421, 422-23 anterior, 407, 408, 409t, 415 lateral, 407, 408, 409t, 414-15 Corticosteroids, 180t, 531 Corticotropes, 515 Corticotropin-releasing hormone, 507t, 516, 516, 529, 530, 536, 538 Cortisol, 505, 506, 507t, 529, 529,

530, 530t, 536, 538 Cosmic rays, 46t

Costal cartilage, 16, 231, 232, 234,

273, 1012, 1013 Costal region, 24, 25 Costocervical artery, 623-24 Coughing, 799, 800t, 813

smoker's cough, 782 Coumadin, 565 Countercurrent mechanism,

839-40, 841, 842 Countercurrent multiplier, 840 Covalent bond, 44 Cowlick, 180

Coxal bone, 211t, 212, 212, 233, 240, 241, 247t, 285, 285, 1013 Coxal region, 24, 25 Cox-2 inhibitors, 729 Cranial bones, 211t Cranial cavity, 11, 13, 14, 219,

266, 396 Cranial nerves, 298, 426, 426t, 428-32, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433t

I (olfactory nerve), 429,

429, 433t

III (oculomotor nerve), 428,

IV (trochlear nerve), 428, 429,

430, 433t, 513

V (trigeminal nerve), 321t, 429,

430, 430, 433t

VI (abducens nerve), 428, 429,

430, 433t

VII (facial nerve), 321t, 429,

VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve), 429, 431, 433t, 469, 474-75, 476, 478

IX (glossopharyngeal nerve), 429, 431, 433t, 440, 444, 467

XI (accessory nerve), 324t, 326t,

XII (hypoglossal nerve), 428,

429, 431, 433t Craniotomy, 448 Cranium, 210, 212, 213-16,

216t, 396 Creatine, 563

serum, 1030 Creatine phosphate, 307, 309,

309, 563 Creatine phosphokinase, 307 Creatinine, 563, 832t blood, 824, 833, 1030

urine, 1032 Creatinine clearance, 1032 Cremasteric reflex, 407 Crest (of bone), 214t Cretinism, 522t, 523 Cribriform plate, 217, 218, 219,

221, 222, 267, 464, 780 Cricoid cartilage, 782, 784, 785,

786, 791 Crista ampullaris, 476, 480 Cristae, of mitochondria, 77, 77 Crista galli, 217, 218,219, 221,

222, 263, 266, 267 Critical period, 953 Crohn's disease, 727 Cross-bridge(s), 301, 302, 304-7,

308, 308t Cross-bridge cycling, 305, 308 Crossed extensor reflex,

403-4, 406 Crossing-over, 886, 886, 888, 888 Crossmatching, 575 Cross section, 22, 23 Crown-to-rump length, 942 Crow's feet, 318

Cruciate ligament, 287, 288 anterior, 287, 288 posterior, 287, 288 Crura, 893, 907 Crural region, 24, 25 Crying, 799, 800t Cryoprecipitate, 570 Cryptorchidism, 881 Cryptosporidiosis, 659 Cubital region, 24, 25 Cubital vein, median, 633, 633, 638 Cuboid, 246 Cuneiform bone intermediate, 246 lateral, 246 medial, 246 Cuneiform cartilage, 782-83, 785 Cupula, 476, 480 Curare, 384t Curettage, 931

Cushing syndrome, 531, 867 Cuspid, 693, 693t, 694 Cutaneous carcinoma, 174-75, 175 Cutaneous melanoma, 174 Cutaneous membrane, 169. See also Skin Cuts, in skin, 185, 186 CXCR4 receptor, 678 Cyanide, 113

Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), 553, 554t, 555t, 703, 711, 712t, 726, 730, 755, 756, 758t, 763 Cyanolabe, 494 Cyanosis, 184, 548 Cyclic adenosine monophosphate,

508-9, 509, 510t, 512, 519 Cyclic guanosine monophosphate,

493, 511, 881 Cyclins, 99 Cyclooxygenase, 729 Cyclophosphamide, 924 Cyclosporine, 673, 926t Cyst, 189, 924 Cystectomy, 850 Cysteine, 759 Cysterna chyli, 720 Cystic duct, 35, 708, 710,

712-14,716 Cystic fibrosis, 71, 134, 708, 753,

790, 945, 945t, 978, 980, 981 carriers of, 985 gene therapy for, 994, 997 inheritance of, 983, 984 Cystitis, 843, 850 Cystoscope, 850 Cystotomy, 850 Cytochrome(s), 1036-37 Cytochrome oxidase, 1037 Cytocrine secretion, 172 Cytokines, 663, 663t, 664, 665, 671

for immunotherapy, 668-69 Cytokinesis, 95, 99t Cytomegalovirus, 678 Cytoplasm, 65, 72-82 Cytoscope, 892

Cytosine, 122, 124, 126t, 127, 1039 Cytoskeleton, 72, 80 Cytosol, 72

Cytotoxic T cells, 663, 676, 678

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